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Table 1 An overview of our intervention development process using an adapted version of the Person-Based Approach

From: Development of an education and self-management intervention for chronic headache – CHESS trial (Chronic Headache Education and Self-management Study)

Intervention development stage Outputs Processes undertaken
Planning Exploration of evidence base to identify patient needs and challenges Synthesis of evidence using systemic reviews:
 a. education and self-management interventions for chronic headache [22]
 b. lived experiences review [35]
 c. prognostic factors for chronic headache [36]
Qualitative material collected via interviews with people living with chronic headache
Design Outline of needs and challenges to be addressed to meet overall intervention objectives Creating an outline of the intervention aims and objectives including the key features and components to achieve the objectives using:
 1. Our experience of developing and testing an intervention package for people living with chronic musculoskeletal pain, COping with persistent Pain, Effectiveness Research into Self-management (COPERS study) [50, 51]
 2. Input from a multidisciplinary team of clinicians, academics, PPI, and charity partners at a collaborative intervention design meeting
 3. Outcomes from a classification development day which aimed to inform the development of a logic model to support the classification of chronic headache disorders. Input into this day came from neurologists, headache specialist general practitioners, headache specialist nurses, and people with chronic headache
Development, evaluation and implementation – acceptability and feasibility Final intervention package evaluated including manuals and training Feedback from our PPI members attending the intervention design day. Qualitative interviews with facilitators (nurses and lay) and participants from the feasibility study to help refine the intervention for the main RCT.