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Volume 16 Supplement 1

1st Joint ANIRCEF-SISC Congress

  • Poster presentation
  • Open Access

P035. Headache prevalence and disability among Italian adolescents aged 11-15 years: a population cross-sectional study

  • 1Email author,
  • 1,
  • 2,
  • 3,
  • 1,
  • 2 and
  • 1
The Journal of Headache and Pain201516 (Suppl 1) :A148

https://doi.org/10.1186/1129-2377-16-S1-A148

  • Published:

Keywords

  • Migraine
  • Chronic Migraine
  • Chronic Daily Headache
  • International Headache Society
  • Headache Diagnosis

Background

Headache is a very common health problem among adolescents, causing school and social disability [1]. This is the first Italian cross-sectional school-based study to use the new ICDH-3 beta classification system. The aim was to determinate the prevalence of headache and to investigate headache-related disability in a school-population aged 11-15.

Methods

Three hundred and seventy-six adolescents aged 11-15 years, living in the Pavia province (Italy), were recruited for this cross-sectional school-based study. They were assessed about their headache using a medical history questionnaire; headache diagnosis was made according to the new classification system of the International Headache Society (ICDH-3 Beta). Headache-related disability was assessed by means of PedMIDAS (Pediatric Migraine Disability Assessment Score).

Results

Of the 376 students enrolled 91 (24.2%) had headache: 60.44% girls (n=55) and 39.56% boys (n=36). At the first diagnosis, the prevalence of any migraine was 28.6% (n=26), any tension-type headache (TTH) 60.4% (n=55), any medication-overuse headache 3.3% (n=3) and “unclassifiable” headache was 7.7% (n=7) (Table 1). All types of chronic daily headache (CDH) and probable chronic daily headache (PCDH) were 23.07% (n=21) and 14.3% (n=13) of participants suffering from headache fulfilled criteria for more than one headache diagnosis (Table 2). No significant difference was found in PedMIDAS score between adolescents with migraine and those with TTH (p = 0.5074), neither between girls and boys (p = 0.961). More than half (53.84%, n=49) of headache types had a low PedMIDAS score, corresponding to no or low disability (Grade I), 25.27% (n=23) of adolescents had mild disability (Grade II), 6.6% (n=6) had moderate disability (Grade III) and 14.28% (n=13) had a severe disability (Grade IV) (Table 3). PedMIDAS score was highest in adolescents with chronic migraine (range from 13 to 176), but severe disability (Grade IV) was the same in chronic migraine (50%, 2 students of 4) and chronic TTH (50%, 7 students of 14). Of the 91 adolescents, only 4 (4.4%) were referred to the Headache Center of the Neuropsychiatric Clinic of Pavia, 1 was referred to an oculist and 5 were followed by a general practitioner, the others did not refer to anyone.
Table 1

Prevalence of ICDH-3 Beta headache disorders for the total sample and by sex.

 

Total number of adolescents with headache (first diagnosis)

Girls

Boys

Any headache

91 (24.2% of 376)

55 (60.44%)

36 (39.56%)

Migraine without aura

10 (11% of 91)

2 (3.6% of 55)

8 (22.2% of 36)

Migraine with aura

2 (2.2%)

1 (1.8%)

1 (2.7%)

Probable migraine without aura

7 (7.7%)

5 (9%)

2 (5.5%)

Probable migraine with aura

3 (3.3%)

1 (1.8%)

2 (5.5%)

Chronic migraine

3 (3.3%)

3 (5.4%)

0

Probable chronic migraine

1 (1.1%)

1 (1.8%)

0

Infrequent TTH

4 (4.4%)

1 (1.8%)

3 (8.3%)

Frequent TTH

29 (31.8%)

22 (40%)

7 (19.4%)

Probable infrequent TTH

3 (3.3%)

2 (3.6%)

1 (2.7%)

Probable frequent TTH

5 (5.5%)

3 (5.4%)

2 (5.5%)

Chronic TTH

10 (11%)

7 (12.7%)

3 (8.3%)

Probable chronic TTH

4 (4.4%)

1 (1.8%)

3 (8.3%)

Medication-overuse headache

3 (3.3%)

2 (3.6%)

1 (2.7%)

Unclassifiable

7 (7.7%)

4 (7.3%)

3 (8.3%)

Table 2

Prevalence of ICDH-3 Beta headache disorders for the total sample: other types of headache.

 

Total number of adolescents with more than one type of headache

First Diagnosis

Migraine without aura

2

Chronic TTH (n=1) Frequent TTH (n=1)

Migraine with aura

8

Chronic TTH (n=2) Frequent TTH (n=5) Migraine with aura (n=1)

Probable migraine with aura

2

Chronic TTH (n=1) Frequent TTH (n=1)

Medication-overuse headache

1

Chronic Migraine (n=1)

TOTAL

13 (14.3% of 91)

Chronic TTH (n=4) Frequent TTH (n=7) Migraine with aura (n=1), Chronic Migraine (n=1)

Table 3

Headache-related disability (PedMIDAS Score) by diagnosis.

 

Range

Grade I (0-10)

Grade II (11-30)

Grade III (31-50)

Grade IV (>51)

Any Headache (n=91)

0-176

49

23

6

13

Migraine without aura

0-33

6

3

1

0

Miraine with aura

6-8

2

0

0

0

Probable migraine without aura

2-18

5

2

0

0

Probable migraine with aura

4-12

2

1

0

0

Chronic Migraine

13-176

0

1

0

2

Probable Chronic Migraine

7

1

0

0

0

Infrequent TTH

1-5

4

0

0

0

Frequent TTH

0-69

15

12

0

2

Probable infrequent TTH

0-1

3

0

0

0

Probable frequent TTH

3-33

3

1

1

0

Chronic TTH

5-120

1

1

4

4

Probable Chronic TTH

15-130

0

1

0

3

Medication-overuse Headache

13-94

0

1

0

2

Unclassifiable

0-5

7

0

0

0

Conclusions

Headache is common in adolescents and can affect schoolwork and social activity. Thus, it is important to raise the awareness among general practitioners, families and teachers, so that they can identify headache in adolescents in its early stages and refer them for appropriate treatment.

Written informed consent to publish was obtained from the patient(s).

Conflict of interest

None declared.

Declarations

Acknowledgments

The authors express their gratitude to participating students, their directors and all the staff of the 3 partecipating schools (Scuola Media c/o Comprensivo di Via Dante Alighieri, Voghera; Scuola Media “Robecchi”, Vigevano; Scuola Media Giovanni XXIII, Vidigulfo), for their cooperation and contribution to this study.

Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
Child Neuropsychiatry Unit, IRCCS National Neurological Institute “C. Mondino”, Pavia, Italy
(2)
University Centre for Adaptive Disorders and Headache (UCADH), Unit of Pavia I, IRCCS “C. Mondino” Foundation, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy
(3)
Nuclear Medicine Unit, IRCCS San Matteo Hospital Foundation, Pavia, Italy

References

  1. Krogh AB, Larsson B, Linde M: Prevalence and disability of headache among Norwegian adolescents: a cross-sectional school-based study. Cephalalgia. 2015, pii: 0333102415573512-Google Scholar

Copyright

© Maffioletti et al. 2015

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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