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Table 1 Summary of the characteristics of included studies

From: A systematic review of economic evaluations of pharmacological treatments for adults with chronic migraine

Authors (Year), Country Objective(s) Study design Study population Sub-groups Sample size (n) Intervention Comparators Type of Economic Evaluation
Journal Articles
 Batty AJ, et al. (2013), United Kingdom [16] To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of Ona botulinumtoxin A (Botox) compared with placebo for the prophylaxis of headaches in adults with chronic migraine (CM) Model based economic evaluation Participants in The Phase III REsearch Evaluating Migraine Prophylaxis Therapy (PREEMPT) Trial were considered for the model. The groups comprised: 1) The licensed population, of all CM participants (n = 401), 2) Participants who have previously received one or more oral prophylactic treatments (only Topiramate was a licensed treatment for migraine) (n = 983), and 3) Participants who have previously received three or more oral prophylactic treatments (n = 439) 1384 Botox Placebo Cost-utility analysis (CUA)
 Giannouchos TV, et al. (2019), Greece [17] To evaluate the differences in costs and outcomes of the preventive treatment with Erenumab versus ONBTA in CM participants Model based economic evaluation Participants with CM who fail initial preventive treatment with ONBTA or Erenumab. Adults with a mean age 41 years; and 86% were females. None Not reported Erenumab Botox CUA
 Hansson-Hedblom A, et al. (2020), Norway and Sweden [18] To describe the economic consequences of migraine in Sweden using cost of illness survey data and the cost-effectiveness of ONBTA for the treatment of CM Model based economic evaluation Participants in Phase III PREEMPT trial As in other study using PREEMPT trial participants Not reported Botox Placebo CUA
 Hollier-Hann G, et al. (2020), United Kingdom [19] To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of Botox compared with placebo for the prophylaxis of headaches in adults with CM Model based economic evaluation Participants with CM who have previously received three or more oral preventive therapies in PREEMPT Trial None 439 Botox Placebo CUA
 Lipton RB, et al. (2018), United States of America [20] To estimate value-based pricing ranges for Erenumab 140 mg, administered subcutaneously every 4 weeks, in participants who have failed at least 1 prior preventive treatment compared to supportive care (SC) Model based economic evaluation Participants that were either naïve to preventive treatment or previously treated with preventive medication but failed due to lack of efficacy or intolerability. The migraine populations considered in the model are sub-groups of participants who have previously failed “1 prior preventive therapy. Chronic and episodic migraine (EM) group Not reported Erenumab Placebo (vs Botox as a scenario analysis) CUA
 Mahon R, et al. (2021), Sweden [21] To determine the cost-effectiveness of Erenumab for the preventive treatment of migraine. Model based economic evaluation Participants with CM and EM. The base-case analysis for ‘total migraine’ assumed that 66.7% of the participants had CM and 33.3% had EM, which aligns with the reported percentage of participants with CM for whom prophylactic treatment fails. None Not reported Erenumab Placebo (vs Botox as a scenario analysis) CUA
 Ruggeri et al. (2013), Italy [22] To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of Botox versus placebo in participants with CM Model based economic evaluation Participants with CM from PREEMPT trial. None 1384 participants. 686 received treatment and 698 received placebo Botox Placebo CUA
 Sussman M, et al. (2018), United States of America [23] To assess the cost-effectiveness of Erenumab for the prophylactic treatment of EM and CM Model based economic evaluation Participant with EM and CM. The analyses were done separately CM and EM groups Not stated Erenumab Placebo (vs Botox as a scenario analysis) CUA
 Vekov (2019), Bulgaria [24] To develop a model based on local data on costs and health benefits of alternative Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) inhibitors in Bulgaria Model based economic evaluation Participants with EM and CM CM and EM groups. For the CM group only participants who have not improved with standard preventive therapy were included 667 Erenumab Preventative treatment CUA
Other Reports
 CADTH (Botox) (2019), Canada [25] To compare cost-effectiveness of Botox with existing treatments Canada Model based economic evaluation Participants with CM from PREEMPT trial. 1384 Botox Best supportive care (BSC) CUA
 CADTH (Erenumab) (2019), Canada [26] To compare cost-effectiveness of Erenumab with existing treatments Canada Model based economic evaluation Adult participants with CM, defined as headache 15 or more days per month and headache lasting four hours a day or longer (Study 295, STRIVE trial and LIBERTY trial) Not stated Erenumab BSC, (vs Botox in scenario analysis) CUA
 ICER (2018), United States of America [27] To compare cost-effectiveness of Calcitonin Gene- Related Peptide (CGRP) inhibitors as the preventative treatments for participants with EM or CM USA Model based economic evaluation Patients with CM who fail initial preventive treatment with Botox or other treatment for the prevention of migraine attack Not stated Erenumab, Fremanezumab BSC CUA
 NICE: Erenumab (2019), United Kingdom [29] To compare cost-effectiveness of Erenumab with existing treatments UK Model based economic evaluation Patients with CM who fail initial preventive treatment with Botox or other treatment for the prevention of migraine attack. 439 Erenumab BSC and Botox CUA
 NICE: Fremanezumab (2019), United Kingdom [28] To compare cost-effectiveness of Fremanezumab with existing treatments UK Model based economic evaluation Patients with CM who fail initial preventive treatment with Botox or other treatment for the prevention of migraine attack. 439 Fremanezumab BSC and Botox CUA
 NICE: Galcenzenumab (2020), United Kingdom [30] To compare cost-effectiveness of Glacanzunab with existing treatments UK Model based economic evaluation Patients with CM who fail initial preventive treatment with Botox or other treatment for the prevention of migraine attack. 439 Glacanzunab BSC and Botox CUA
 Warwick Evidence (2011), United Kingdom [31] To compare cost-effectiveness of Botox with existing treatments UK Model based economic evaluation Patients in The Phase III REsearch Evaluating Migraine Prophylaxis Therapy (PREEMPT) Trial were considered for the model. 1384 Botox Placebo CUA
  1. CGRP Calcitonin gene-related peptide, CM Chronic migraine, CUA Cost utility analysis, EM Episodic migraine, ONBTA Ona botulinumtoxin A, PREEMPT Patients in The Phase III REsearch Evaluating Migraine Prophylaxis Therapy, SC Supportive care