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Table 3 The number and percentage of smokers/non-smokers for each type of PAS

From: Pre-attack and pre-episode symptoms in cluster headache: a multicenter cross-sectional study of 327 Chinese patients

Pre-attack symptom Total
(N = 269)
Smoking history P-value
No (N = 143) Yes (N = 126)
Head and facial discomfort 200 (74.3%) 104 (72.7%) 96 (76.2%) 0.070
Neck stiffness 87 (32.3%) 48 (33.6%) 39 (31.0%) 0.862
Anxiety and upset 81 (30.1%) 39 (27.3%) 42 (33.3%) 0.102
Unwillingness to talk 79 (29.4%) 36 (25.2%) 43 (34.1%) 0.033
Others 57 (21.2%) 35 (24.5%) 22 (17.5%) 0.363
Phonophobia 56 (20.8%) 26 (18.2%) 30 (23.8%) 0.114
Yawning 52 (19.3%) 30 (21.0%) 22 (17.5%) 0.784
Irritability 52 (19.3%) 23 (16.1%) 29 (23.0%) 0.063
Photophobia 47 (17.5%) 22 (15.4%) 25 (19.8%) 0.172
Drowsiness 40 (14.9%) 21 (14.7%) 19 (15.1%) 0.638
Fatigue 39 (14.5%) 20 (14.0%) 19 (15.1%) 0.530
Concentration changes 38 (14.1%) 19 (13.3%) 19 (15.1%) 0.431
Sweating 35 (13.0%) 13 (9.1%) 22 (17.5%) 0.018
Osmophobia 30 (11.2%) 13 (9.1%) 17 (13.5%) 0.144
Dysesthesia 26 (9.7%) 10 (7.0%) 16 (12.7%) 0.061
Fidgeting 26 (9.7%) 11 (7.7%) 15 (11.9%) 0.144
CASs 25 (9.3%) 14 (9.8%) 11 (8.7%) 0.997
Frustration 23 (8.6%) 7 (4.9%) 16 (12.7%) 0.011
Poor appetite 23 (8.6%) 9 (6.3%) 14 (11.1%) 0.199
Dizziness 22 (8.2%) 7 (4.9%) 15 (11.9%) 0.018
Nausea 21 (7.8%) 11 (7.7%) 10 (7.9%) 0.732
Palpitation 16 (6.0%) 6 (4.2%) 10 (7.9%) 0.127
Thirst 15 (5.6%) 9 (6.3%) 6 (4.8%) 0.747
Ear swelling 12 (4.5%) 5 (3.5%) 7 (5.6%) 0.309
Sensation of cold 10 (3.7%) 4 (2.8%) 6 (4.8%) 0.302
Diarrhea 9 (3.3%) 6 (4.2%) 3 (2.4%) 0.512
Diuresis 6 (2.2%) 1 (0.7%) 5 (4.0%) 0.050
Overactivity 5 (1.9%) 5 (3.5%) 0 0.046
Edema 5 (1.9%) 3 (2.1%) 2 (1.6%) 0.855
Food craving 4 (1.5%) 2 (1.4%) 2 (1.6%) 0.809
Dysphasia 2 (0.7%) 0 2 (1.6%) 0.110
Constipation 2 (0.7%) 1 (0.7%) 1 (0.8%) 0.865