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Table 2 Prevalence (%) of active headache disorder by type and geographical area (estimated in this study and, for migraine and TTH, in GBD2019)

From: The global prevalence of headache: an update, with analysis of the influences of methodological factors on prevalence estimates

   Headache Migraine TTH H15+
GBD superregion %1 N2 Mean (95%CI) GBD2019 N1 Mean (95% CI) GBD2019 N1 Mean (95% CI) GBD2019 N1 Mean (95% CI)
Global 100 183 52.0 (48.9–55.4) 35 (32.3–37.7) 244 14.0 (12.9–15.2) 15.2 (13.2–17.4) 110 26.0 (22.7–29.5) 26.8 (23.5–30.1) 59 4.6 (3.8–5.4)
CEECA 5.3 14 53.6 (41.8–65.2) 41.8 (38.6–44.9) 18 16.6 (12.6–21.3) 15.6 (13.6–17.9) 15 31.1 (22.8–39.2) 35.2 (31.3–39.0) 8 5.2 (3.3–7.2)
HI 14.7 88 51.9 (47.5–56.6) 43.4 (40.2–46.5) 117 13.7 (12.3–15.5) 17.2 (15.1–19.9) 41 30.4 (24.4–36.5) 36.4 (32.4–40.4) 24 3.4 (2.9–4.1)
LAC 7.4 24 55.0 (44.9–65.4) 36.7 (33.8–39.7) 33 17.0 (12.9–22.0) 16.3 (14.1–19.1) 11 26.8 (16.1–39.8) 27.9 (24.4–31.4) 6 6.4 (5.0–7.5)
SEEAO 27.6 10 38.7 (20.4–56.5) 37.3 (34.3–40.4) 16 9.0 (6.0–13.1) 17.5 (15.1–20.2) 8 11.1 (3.5–19.5) 27.7 (24.2–31.2) 5 2.8
NAME 7.7 20 60.5 (50.9–68.5) 35.4 (32.3–38.6) 30 11.8 (9.4–14.4) 16.7 (14.4–19.4) 19 20.5 (14.4–27.8) 25.7 (22.1–29.4) 7 4.9 (3.0–6.9)
SA 23.4 7 53.2 (29.0–74.1) 35.6 (32.7–38.6) 8 22.2 (16.1–27.8) 15.5 (13.4–17.9) 5 33.1 (20.3–42.9) 27.4 (24.1–31.0) 4 6.9
SSA 14.0 19 43.8 (32.4–55.6) 27.4 (24.6–30.2) 21 12.4 (9.1–16.8) 11.3 (9.5–13.3) 10 16.6 (12.4–21.0) 21.0 (17.9–24.4) 4 6.7
  1. 1% of the world’s population living in the superregion
  2. 2 The global total of studies is higher than the sum of studies per superregion because some studies give data from more than one superregion, i.e. it cannot be assigned to a single superregion
  3. H15+ headache on ≥15 days/month, %: percent of world population, N: number of studies, TTH: tension-type headache, CI: confidence interval (not given when N ≤ 5)
  4. CEECA Central Europe, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, HI High-income countries, LAC Latin America and Caribbean, SEEAO Southeast Asia, East Asia and Oceania, NAME North Africa and Middle East, SA South Asia, SSA Sub-Saharan Africa