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Table 5 Univariate and multivariate logistic analysis to identify independent variables decreasing days with acute medication

From: The impact of COVID-19 pandemic on headache symptoms and drug withdrawal among patients with medication overuse headache: a cross-sectional study

Variables Univariate   Multivariate  
  OR(95%CI) P OR(95%CI) P
Sex, male 3.42 (1.21–9.67) 0.021* 4.78 (1.44–15.87) 0.011*
Age, year 1.01 (0.97–1.06) 0.581
Marital status, married 1.51 (0.16–14.33) 0.720
Education level (>  12 years) 1.11 (0.31–4.00) 0.878
Household income monthly 1.71 (0.62–4.69) 0.300
Preexisting headache diagnoses (CTTH vs. others) 1.25 (0.46–3.42) 0.663
Duration of medication overuse 0.96 (0.87–1.05) 0.336 0.96 (0.88–1.05) 0.359
Available access to regular prophylactic medication 2.47 (0.89–6.85) 0.083 2.31 (0.63–8.43) 0.206
Following abrupt withdrawal 1.63 (0.59–4.45) 0.344 2.82 (0.67–11.91) 0.160
Headache intensity per month in the pre-pandemic 3 months period 1.07 (0.86–1.34) 0.535 1.04 (0.79–1.38) 0.780
Days per month with acute medication in the pre-pandemic 3 months period 1.04 (0.99–1.08) 0.127 1.05 (0.99–1.11) 0.131
History of epidemiological area exposure 0.36 (0.02–5.98) 0.474
Suspected COVID-19 cases themselves or in their relatives 1.000
COVID-19 cases in respondent’s residential community 0.36 (0.02–5.98) 0.474
Level of concern about COVID-19 pandemic 0.68 (0.42–1.12) 0.132
Duration spent on following news of pandemic, hours per day 1.10 (0.71–1.71) 0.656
Feel of difficulty in controlling emotion during the COVID-19 pandemic 1.40 (0.24–8.24) 0.714
Stressors total score during the COVID-19 pandemic 1.00 (0.96–1.06) 0.866
Fear for getting COVID-19 0.94 (0.80–1.12) 0.505
Physical and psychological distress caused by isolation 0.98 (0.74–1.28) 0.863 0.93 (0.67–1.29) 0.664
Inconvenience caused by work and life changes 1.00 (0.83–1.21) 0.979 1.10 (0.87–1.39) 0.426
Social discrimination 0.999
Limited social function 1.05 (0.93–1.18) 0.430
Economic losses 1.06 (0.87–1.29) 0.591
Coronavirus death of family members or friends 1.000
Kessler 6-item psychological distress scale during the COVID-19 pandemic 1.07 (0.89–1.29) 0.497
  1. CI Confidence interval; *: Statistically significant at P < 0.05