Skip to main content

Table 2 Relation between increase in migraine frequency and increase in migraine severity with different variables (n = 1018)

From: Impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on patients with migraine: a web-based survey study

Variables Total
No.
Increase in migraine days
(n = 607)
Test of
Sig.
p-value Increase in migraine severity
(n = 653)
Test of
Sig.
p-value
Age (years)
  < 20 38 22 (3.6%) χ2 = 0.528 0.913 29 (4.5%) χ2 = 3.192 0.363
 20–40 733 438 (72.2%) 469 (72.2%)
 40–60 235 141 (23.2%) 145 (22.3%)
  > 60 12 6 (1%) 7 (1.1%)
Gender
 Male 858 79 (13%) χ2 = 8.288* 0.004* 82 (12.6%) χ2 = 13.059* < 0.001*
 Female 160 528 (87%) 568 (87.4%)
Occupation
 Not working 208 112 (18.5%) χ2 = 8.702 0.069 124 (19.1%) χ2 = 3.971 0.563
 Student 116 60 (9.9%) 73 (11.2%)
 Part time job 107 67 (11%) 69 (10.6%)
 Full time job 526 331 (54.5%) 347 (53.4%)
 Retired 61 37 (6.1%) 37 (5.7%)
Marital status
 Single 324 185 (30.5%) χ2 = 6.315 0.163 204 (31.4%) χ2 = 2.057 0.748
 Married 629 386 (63.6%) 403 (62.0%)
 Widow 4 4 (0.7%) 4 (0.6%)
 Divorced 55 30 (4.9%) 35 (5.4%)
 Other 6 2 (0.3%) 4 (0.6%)
Education
 High school 456 215 (47.1%) χ2 = 5.413 0.179 248 (54.3%) χ2 = 5.688 0.099
 Primary school or less 282 143 (50.7%) 136 (48.2%)
 University 280 161 (57.4%) 144 (51.4%)
Disease onset
 Mean ± SD.   8.4 ± 8.7 U = 114,845.0* 0.031* 8.5 ± 8.2 U = 107,303.50* 0.006*
 Median (Min. – Max.)   6 (1–46) 6 (1–46)
Difficulty in getting medications 256 179 (29.5%) χ2 = 15.058* < 0.001* 190 (29.2%) χ2 = 15.928* < 0.001*
Compliance to migraine treatment
 No 541 277 (45.6%) χ2 = 34.045* < 0.001* 305 (46.9%) χ2 = 27.940* < 0.001*
 Yes 477 330 (54.4%) 345 (53.1%)
Medication overuse 597 497 (81.9%) χ2 = 334.634* < 0.001* 504 (77.5%) χ2 = 264.669* < 0.001*
Communication with treating physician
 Did not contact the doctor for the duration of the pandemic 626 425 (70.0%) χ2 = 66.015 < 0.001* 471 (72.1%) χ2 = 110.693 < 0.001*
 Contacted treating physician 392 182 (30.0%) 182 (27.9%)
Sleep disturbance 794 535 (88.1%) χ2 = 90.115* < 0.001* 562 (86.5%) χ2 = 75.083* < 0.001*
Eating habits disturbance 593 418 (68.9%) χ2 = 69.618* < 0.001* 443 (68.2%) χ2 = 72.501* < 0.001*
Symptoms of anxiety and/or depression 809 523 (86.2%) χ2 = 42.337* < 0.001* 561 (86.3%) χ2 = 52.838* < 0.001*
Increase screen time exposure 905 545 (89.8%) χ2 = 1.196 0.274 584 (89.8%) χ2 = 1.632 0.201
Working during pandemic 465 295 (48.5%) χ2 = 3.522* 0.042* 312 (48.0%) χ2 = 3.908* 0.039*
Use of alternative/ traditional medicine 406 270 (44.5%) χ2 = 13.263* < 0.001* 283 (43.5%) χ2 = 10.026* 0.002*
Lack of regular exercise 812 544 (66.9%) χ2 = 12.263* < 0.001* 498 (61.3%) χ2=10.405* < 0.001*
  1. χ2: Chi square test U: Mann Whitney test
  2. p: p value for association between different categories
  3. *: Statistically significant at p ≤ 0.05