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Table 1 Symptom comparisons between neuropathic pain states and persistent mild traumatic brain injury related headaches (MTBI-HA)

From: Addressing chronic persistent headaches after MTBI as a neuropathic pain state

Clinical Hallmark Symptoms and Co-morbid Conditions in Neuropathic Pain StateHighly Prevalent Clinical Hallmark Symptoms and Co-morbid Conditions in Patients with Persistent MTBI-HA
• Persistent pain after tissue healing Persistent head pain long after the injury
• Allodynia (pain with non-painful stimuli) Scalp pain with non-painful stimuli (allodynia)
• Frequent Debilitating Pain Exacerbation (pain without painful provocation) Frequent Debilitating Headache Exacerbation (pain without painful provocation)
• Hyperalgesia (enhanced pain perception) Enhanced mechanical pain perception (hyperalgesia)
• Hyperpathia (enhanced emotion response to pain) Easily agitated (sympathetic involvement)
• Altered motor or sensory functions Tinnitus, photo/phono-sensitivity (altered sensory function)
Balance problem (altered motor function)
• Enhanced Sympathetic Activity/Mediated Pain PTSD (sympathetic involvement)
Anxiety
• Mood Dysfunction: Depression Depression is a highly co-morbid condition (mood)
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