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Table 1 Studies reporting humanistic burden of migraine

From: Prevalence, burden, and clinical management of migraine in China, Japan, and South Korea: a comprehensive review of the literature

CitationCountry/
region
Study design
Study dates
Migraine criteria
Migraine criteriaMigraine (n)
Age, y
% F
Main findings for participants with migraine
Yu, 2012 [29]China / MainlandPopulation-based
2009
ICHD-II469
Mean 46.2 y
67.6 F
World Health Organization QoL-8 (migraine [n = 464] vs no headache; P < 0.05 for all comparisons):
• Total score 25.7 vs 27.9
• Life quality 3.2 vs 3.4
• Health level 3.0 vs 3.6
• Daily life ability 3.4 vs 3.7
• Satisfied with yourself 3.5 vs 3.7
• Interpersonal relationships 3.8 vs 3.9
• Habitation condition 3.3 vs 3.5
• Daily life energy 3.0 vs 3.4
• Payment ability 2.6 vs 2.8
Wang, 2016 [27]China / MainlandPopulation-based
2013
ID Migraine Screener – Chinese version102
Mean 51.5 y
84.3 F
HRQoL (SF-36) was significantly worse for respondents with migraine than those without. Domains significantly different (linear regression, P < 0.05) were:
• Role physical −25.8 mean difference
• Role emotional − 17.1
• General health − 13.0
• Bodily pain − 10.9
• Physical functioning − 3.8
Hung, 2006 [34]China / TaiwanCross-sectional-other: headache clinic
2003–2004
ICHD-II281 adults
Mean 35.3 y
20–50 y
77.6 F
MIDAS-T
Mean score: 34.2 ± 45.9 (severe disability)
• Days missed from work/school 4.6 ± 9.9
• Reduced effectiveness days at work/school 8.2 ± 12.2
• Days missed from housework 7.1 ± 14.0
• Reduced effectiveness in housework 8.0 ± 12.1
• Days missed from family, social, or leisure activities 6.5 ± 13.9
Wang, 2013 [46]China / TaiwanCross-sectional other: headache clinics
2011
Neurologist diagnosis / ICHD-II331 adults
Mean, 41
77.7 F
MIDAS scores for chronic migraine vs episodic migraine:
• 46.1 ± 49.2 (grade IV–B) vs EM: 14.4 ± 23.4 (grade III), P < 0.001% MIDAS with severe disability: 59.3% vs 21.9%
• % MIDAS with very severe disability: 41.3% vs 7.9%
MSQ for chronic migraine vs episodic migraine:
• Role function restrictive (56.4 ± 17.3 vs 70.8 ± 13.8, P < 0.001)
• Role function preventive (70.0 ± 18.2 vs 81.4 ± 16.2, P < 0.001)
• Emotional function scores (62.0 ± 23.0 vs 78.1 ± 16.8, P < 0.001)
EQ-5D VAS chronic migraine vs episodic migraine:
• 67.4 ± 18.7 vs 82.3 ± NR, P < 0.001
Wang, 2001 [42]China / TaiwanCross-sectional other: headache clinic
1998–1999
IHS193 adults
Mean 41.8 y
80 F
Compared with SF-36 normative data (0–100) for Taiwanese women, migraine had the greatest effect on bodily pain and role emotional:
• Role physical 77.6 vs 56.0
• Bodily pain 79.4 vs 49.7
• General health 63.3 vs 49.5
• Vitality 65.3 vs 50.9
• Social functioning 85.3 vs 67.9
• Role emotional 79.9 vs 54.2
• Mental health 71.8 vs 61.6
Sakai, 1997 [51]JapanPopulation-based
NR
IHS338 adults
≥15 y
79.0 F
74.2% had significant impairment in daily living (not defined):
• Disability in social activity: severe (4.5%), moderate (27.5%), mild/none (68.0%)
• Daily activity impairment: required bedrest always (4%), frequently required bedrest with severely impaired daily activity (30%), moderate impairment of daily activity (40%), minor impairment (21%), no impairment (5%)
Iigaya, 2003 [49]JapanCross-sectional other: headache clinics 2000IHS99 patients with migraine and or TTH (72% had at least migraine)
Mean 42.7 y 80.8 F
46.5% of patients were MIDAS grade I or II (minimal, mild, or infrequent disability), 22.2% were MIDAS grade III (moderate disability), and 31.3% were MIDAS grade IV (severe disability)
Roh, 1998 [59]South KoreaPopulation-based
1996
IHS272 adults
≥15 y
24.3 F
19.1% discontinued daily activities because of migraine
34.4% canceled work or social activities because of migraine
Kim, 2012; Kim, 2013; Chu, 2013 [55,56,57]South KoreaPopulation-based
2009
ICHD-II92 adults
≥19 y NR
Mean HIT-6 scores: 51.9 for women and 51.8 for men
• Little or no impact, 42.8%–42.9%
• Some impact, 25.3%–25.7%
• Substantial impact, 13.0%–13.2%
• Severe impact, 18.5%–18.7%
Over the past 3 mo, patients with migraine experienced:
• Restriction in activities for a mean of 2.7 days
• Missing activities for a mean of 2.8 days
Adolescents/children
Lu, 2000 [36]China / TaiwanPopulation-based
1998–1999
IHS277 adolescents
13–15 y
58.8 F
30.4% of children with migraine were absent from school because of headache in the previous semester: 1–3 days 27%, ≥4 days 3.4%
Goto, 2017 [48]JapanPopulation-based
2012
IHS131 adolescents
6–12 y: 42.5 F
12–15 y: 67.2 F
Feeling fed up or irritated, having difficulty concentrating were significantly more common (P = 0.010 and P = 0.017, respectively) in migraine than TTH
For children with migraine, the number of days for the past 3 mo that disability affected school life, including school absences, arriving late, leaving early, or having difficulty participating in physical activities, ranged from 1.7 (SD 1.2) days to 3.8 (SD 3.7) days
  1. EQ-5D European Quality of Life 5–Dimensions questionnaire; F female; HIT-6 Headache Impact Test; HRQoL health-related quality of life; ICHD-I/II/IIIβ International Classification of Headache Disorders; IHS International Headache Society; MSQ Migraine-Specific Quality-of-Life Questionnaire; MIDAS Migraine Disability Assessment Questionnaire; NR not reported; SD standard deviation; SF-36 Short-Form 36-item survey; TTH tension-type headache; VAS visual analog scale
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