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Fig. 4 | The Journal of Headache and Pain

Fig. 4

From: Electrical stimulation of the superior sagittal sinus suppresses A-type K+ currents and increases P/Q- and T-type Ca2+ currents in rat trigeminal ganglion neurons

Fig. 4

ES suppressed the IA, but did not affect the IDR in small-sized TG neurons. a, Representative current traces recorded from small-sized TG neurons. Left: The IA was isolated using a two-step voltage protocol. Right: The IA was obtained after the off-line subtraction of the noninactivating component. Insets in the top panel show the stimulation waveform, which was used for the IA isolation indicated in all Figs. b, Current-voltage (I/V) relationships of the IA current density vs. the test potential upon treatment with 5 mM 4-AP (n = 6). **p < 0.01 vs. sham, one-way ANOVA. c, Bar graph indicating that ES significantly decreased the IA at + 40 mV. **p < 0.01 vs. sham, unpaired t-test. D and E, Representative traces (d) and summary data of the current density (e) demonstrating that ES decreased the IA in small-sized IB4 or IB4+ TG neurons. *p < 0.05 and ***p < 0.001 vs. sham, unpaired t-test. F and G, Representative current traces (f) and summary data (g) demonstrating that ES had no significant effects on the IDR in either small-sized IB4 or IB4+ TG neurons. h, Determination of Kv1.4, Kv4 (Kv4.1, Kv4.2 and Kv4.3), and Kv3.4 mRNAs in rat TGs. No signal was detected in the reactions without RT (−RT). i, Immunoblot analysis indicating the decreased protein expression of Kv4.3 in the TGs of rats with ES-induced migraine. The depicted immunoblots are representative of three different experiments. *p < 0.05 vs. sham, unpaired t-test

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