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Table 1 Synoptic table of neurophysiological changes comparing episodic migraine with aura (MA) between attacks, during the aura phase, and familiar hemiplegic migraine (FHM). Arrows indicate the direction of change

From: Clinical neurophysiology of migraine with aura

  Episodic migraine with aura between attacks Episodic migraine during the aura FHM
 EEG & MEG ↑ photic driving, ↑ of slow, and hyper synchronized alpha rhythmic activity On EEG, mild asymmetry of slow waves contralateral to the visual fiend defect Unilateral or bilateral delta EEG activity – sometimes spreading postero-anteriorly – and ↓ of alpha
   On MEG, alpha and gamma rhythm ERD contralateral to the visual fiend defect, slow direct current potential shifts  
 EP & ERP grand-average ↑ amplitude (more than in MO) or normal, ↓ thalamocortical activity ↓ or abolition of cortical EPs in the hemisphere contralateral to the field defect  
 EP & ERP Habituation ↓ habituation (more than in MO) or normal ↓ habituation during persistent aura without infarction Significantly more pronounced habituation during VEPs and nBR recordings than controls
 TMS Paradoxical effects to enhancing and reducing paradigms of stimulation   ↓ MEP amplitude on the ictally paretic side
 EMG recordings ↓ Habituation of nBR, subclinical abnormalities of neuromuscular transmission on SFEMG   
  1. EEG electroencephalography, EMG electromyography, EP, evoked potentials (visual, somatosensory and auditory), ERD event-related desynchronization, ERP event-related potentials, MEG magnetoelectroencephalography, MEP motor evoked potential, MO episodic migraine without aura, nBR nociceptive blinck reflex, TMS transcranial magnetic stimulation