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Table 1 Summary of characteristics of included studies

From: Efficacy of psychological treatment for headache disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study ID Published country Headache type Intervention used in study arms (N) Control group N Duration of intervention Outcome measure Time of outcome measure
K. A. Foster et al., 2004 USA Primary headache Attention control (6) 12 6 weeks Frequency attack
Intensity, duration, medication usage, self-reported HQOL
6 weeks
Trager treatment (11)
E. B. Blanchard et al., 1991 USA Tension type headache Progressive muscle relaxation with home practice (14) 6 8 weeks HI, HI improvement
12 weeks
Progressive muscle relaxation without home practice (13)
E. B. Blanchard et al., 1991 USA Migraine Thermal biofeedback with home practice (18) 10 6 weeks HI
10 weeks
Thermal biofeedback without home practice (19)
T. Finn et al., 1991 USA Tension type headache Progressive muscle relaxation (8) 9 10 weeks Frequency attack
Duration, severity, headache free days
10 weeks, 2 months
Rational-emotive therapy (8)
Headache discussion (10)
H. Mo’tamedi et al., 2012 Iran Primary headache Acceptance and commitment therapy (15) 15 8 weeks MIDAS
Intensity, duration
8 weeks
D. Kewman et al., 1980 USA Migraine Skin temperature biofeedback,raise finger temperature (11) 11 9 weeks + 1 day Frequency attack
Duration, number of symptoms, disability, composite medication rating
15 weeks
Skin temperature biofeedback, lower finger temperature (12)
A. Kleiboer et al., 2014 Netherlands Migraine Online behavioral training in migraine self-management (195) 173 8 weeks Frequency day, MIDAS
HMSE, HSLC, MSQOL, intensity
8 weeks
P. D’Souza et al., 2008 USA Migraine Relaxation training (28) 31 4 weeks Frequency day, MIDAS
1 month, 3 months
Written emotional disclosure (31)
Tension type headache Relaxation training (17) 17
Written emotional disclosure (17)
B. Meyer et al., 2016 Germany Migraine Progressive muscle relaxation (16) 19 6 weeks Frequency day 6 weeks, 18 weeks
R. E. Wells et al., 2014 USA Migraine Mindfulness-based stress reduction (10) 9 8 weeks Frequency attack, disability
Severity, Duration, HIT-6, Headache management self efficacy, Migraine-specific quality of life
8 weeks, 12 weeks
V. Bembalgi et al., 2012 India Tension type headache Auditory galvanic skin resistance biofeedback (30) 31 Not specified (15 sessions) Frequency attack
Duration, intensity
6 months after treatment
Visual galvanic skin resistance biofeedback (30)
Combined galvanic skin resistance biofeedback (30)
O. Slavin-Spenny et al., 2013 USA Primary headache Relaxation training (48) 49 6 weeks Frequency day, MIDAS
Severity, duration
10 weeks
Anger awareness and expression training (50)
H. Mansourishad et al., 2017 Iran Migraine Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (13) 13 1 month Frequency attack
Intensity, duration
1 month, 3 months
E. H. Kang et al., 2009 Korea Migraine Biofeedback-assisted autogenic training (17) 15 4 weeks HI improvement 2 weeks, 4 weeks
P. Bruhn et al., 1979 Denmark Tension type headache Electromyographic feedback therapy (13) 10 8 weeks HI improvement
Drug intake, Duration
8 weeks, 20 weeks
K. A. Appelbaum et al., 1990 USA Tension type headache Progressive muscle relaxation training (16) 8 8 weeks HI, HI improvement
12 weeks
Progressive muscle relaxation training plus selected cognitive stress coping techniques (17)
V. Bembalgi et al., 2013 India Tension type headache Electromyography biofeedback (23) 22 Not specified (15 sessions) Frequency attack
Intensity, duration, analgesic usage
1 month, 6 months, 12 months
Galvanic skin resistance biofeedback (22)
P. Martin et al., 2007 Australia Primary headache Cognitive behavioral therapy (18) 13 2 months HI improvement
Medication use
2 months, 6 months, 12 months
Temporal pulse amplitude biofeedback training (19)
L. A. Rokicki et al., 1997 USA Tension type headache Combined relaxation and electromyographic biofeedback therapy (30) 14 3 weeks HI, HI improvement
Headache free days, medication intake, headache activity
3 weeks
S. Cathcart et al., 2014 Australia Tension type headache Mindfulness-based therapy (23) 19 3 weeks Frequency day
Intensity, duration
3 weeks
J. Gauthier et al., 1983 Canada Migraine Temporal Artery Constriction feedback (7) 7 2 months Frequency day
Intensity, duration, medication
2 m
Temporal artery dilation feedback (7)
G. Pickering et al., 2012 France Migraine Autogenic training (29) 29 2 months Frequency day
Headache score, analgesics consumption
2 months, 4 months
T. Devineni et al., 2005 USA Primary headache Progressive muscle relaxation plus cognitive stress coping therapy for tension-type headache, Autogenic training plus progressive muscle relaxation for migraine or mixed headache (39) 47 1 month HI improvement
1 month
S. Cousins et al., 2015 UK Migraine Brief guided self-help cognitive behavioral therapy and relaxation treatment (36) 37 5 weeks Frequency day, MIDAS
HIT-6, mean number of days rescue medication used
4 months
E. Blanchard et al., 1990 USA Primary headache Thermal biofeedback with adjunctive relaxation training (32) 54 (Pseudo-meditation 24, WL 30) 2 months HI, HI improvement
2 months
Thermal biofeedback with adjunctive relaxation training plus cognitive therapy (30)
E. B. Blanchard et al., 1990 USA Primary headache Home based thermal biofeedback + relaxation training (30) 17 2 months HI, HI improvement
2 months
Home based thermal biofeedback + relaxation training plus instruction in cognitive stress coping techniques (29)
M. Odawara et al., 2015 Japan Migraine Biofeedback (16) 11 10w Frequency day
Intensity, headache related disability
14 weeks
  1. N, Number of subjects included in each study arm; HQOL, headache quality of life; HI, headache index; MI, medication index; MIDAS, migraine disability assessment; HMSE, headache management self-efficacy; HSLC, headache-specific locus of control scale; MSQOL, migraine specific quality of life; HIT-6, headache disability inventory; WL, waiting list