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Table 2 Studies evaluating cognitive function in migraine patients < 50 years

From: Cognitive dysfunction and migraine

Migraine Phase Cognitive Domains Affected in Migraine Study design Evaluation Methods Outcome Reference
Ictal, interictal Executive functions Cross sectional, clinic based HCC-ANAM Migraine attack negatively affects executive functions Farmer et al., 2000, 2001 [9, 10]
Ictal   Cross sectional
No information about recruitment of migraine sample
MEWT- Matching to Sample Working memory decline at the onset of a migraine attack Edwards et al., 2013 [11]
Interictal   Cross sectional, clinic based Trail Making Test, Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test Impaired working memory and sustained attention in migraine patients Zeitlin et al.,1984 [39]
Interictal   Cross sectional, clinic based WAIS-R Digit Span Subtest Impairment in sustained attention in migraine patients Hooker et al., 1986 [14]
Interictal   Cross sectional
Migraine patients were recruited from college students
Neuropsychological Evaluation System-1) Continuous Performance with Pictures 2) Continuous Performance with Letters 3)Color Word Task 4)Symbol Digit Substitution Task Impairment in sustained attention in migraine patients Mulder et al.,1999 [43]
Interictal   Cross sectional, clinic based Trail Making Test-B, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test Impaired executive functions in migraine patients Camarda et al., 2007 [47]
Interictal   Cross sectional, clinic based MoCA Migraineurs performed worse in executive functions part Huang et al.,2017 [13]
Chronic migrainea   Cross sectional, clinic based Tower of Hanoi-3 Impairments in planning, sequencing skills and working memory in migraine patients Mongini et al., 2015 [38]
Interictal   Cross sectional, population based Trail Making Test-B Poorer performance in Trail Making Test-B in migraine patients suggesting an impairment in executive functions Pellegrino Baena et al., 2018 [25]
Interictal   Cross sectional
Migraine patients were recruited from college students
Trail Making Test No difference between migraine patients and controls regarding working memory Burker et al., 1989 [52]
Interictal   Cross sectional
The migraine patients were recruited from a meeting of a local organization for migraine patients and from patients of general practitioners
Continuous Performance Test, Digit Span Backwards No difference between migraine patients and control subjects regarding sustained attention and working memory Leijdekkers et al., 1990 [16]
Interictal   Cross sectional, clinic based Trail Making Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting test No difference between migraine patients and control subjects Lo Buono et al., 2017 [20]
Ictal, interictal Attention Cross sectional, clinic based HCC-ANAM - Continuous Performance Test Migraine attack negatively affects attention Farmer et al., 2000, 2001 [9, 10]
Interictal   Cross sectional, clinic based Stroop Test, Trail Making Test Impaired attention in migraine patients Zeitlin et al., 1984 [39]
Interictal   Cross sectional
Migraine patients were recruited from college students
Neuropsychological Evaluation System-1) Continuous Performance with Pictures 2) Continuous Performance with Letters 3) Color Word Task Migraine patients were slower in tasks requiring selective attention Mulder et al., 1999 [43]
Interictal   Cross sectional, clinic based Boston Scanning Test (or Visual Continuous Performance Test) Impaired attention in migraine patients Le Pira et al., 2000 [15]
Interictal   Cross sectional, population based Trail Making Test-B Impairment in attention in migraine patients Pellegrino Baena et al., 2018 [25]
Interictal   Cross sectional
Migraine patients were recruited from college students
Trail Making Test No difference between migraine patients and controls Burker et al., 1989 [52]
Interictal   Cross sectional
No information about recruitment of migraine sample
Automatic Attention Task and Conscious Visual Attention Task High visual discomfort, rather than migraine is associated with poorer performance Conlon et al., 2001 [18]
Ictal, interictal Visuospatial memory Cross sectional, clinic based HCC-ANAM - Matching to sample Visual memory was negatively affected during migraine attack Farmer et al., 2000, 2001 [9, 10]
Ictal   Cross sectional
No information about recruitment of migraine sample
MEWT- Matching to Sample Visual memory decline at the onset of a migraine attack Edwards et al., 2013 [11]
Interictal   Cross sectional, clinic based Rey Complex Figure test Impaired visuospatial memory in migraine patients Le Pira et al., 2000 [15]
Interictal   Cross sectional
Migraine patients were recruited from college students
Rey-Osterreith Complex Figure Test No difference between migraine patients and controls Burker et al., 1989 [52]
Interictal   Cross sectional
The migraine patients were recruited from a meeting of a local organization for migraine patients and from patients of general practitioners
Pattern Memory Test No significant difference between migraine patients and control subjects Leijdekkers et al., 1990 [16]
Ictal Verbal memory Cross sectional, clinic based California Verbal Learning Test Verbal memory performance of migraineurs were decreased during a migraine attack Gil-Gouveia et al., 2015 [8]
Interictal   Cross sectional, clinic based WMS-Revised Verbatim recall of short stories after 30-min delay was performed significantly worse in migraineurs Hooker et al., 1986 [14]
Interictal   Cross sectional, clinic based California Verbal Learning Test Verbal memory impairment in migraine patients Le Pira et al., 2000 [15]
Interictal   Cross sectional, clinic based MoCA Migraineurs performed worse in verbal memory Huang et al.,2017 [13]
Interictal   Cross sectional, clinic based Memory for Intentions Screening Test Migraine without aura patients performed significantly worse than healthy controls on time-based and event-based scales Santangelo et al. 2018 [37]
Interictal   Cross sectional
Migraine patients were recruited from college students
Selective Reminding Test No difference between migraine patients and controls Burker et al., 1989 [52]
Interictal   Cross sectional
The migraine patients were recruited from a meeting of a local organization for migraine patients and from patients of general practitioners
Associate Learning No significant difference between migraine patients and control subjects Leijdekkers et al., 1990 [16]
Interictal   Cross sectional, clinic based Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test No difference between migraine patients and healthy controls Lo Buono et al., 2017 [20]
Interictal Recognition memory Cross sectional, clinic based National hospital forced choice recognition test for words and faces Migraine patients had worse performance in recognition memory tasks Zeitlin et al., 1984 [39]
Interictal   Cross sectional, clinic based Memory for Intentions Screening Test Migraine without aura patients performed significantly worse than healthy controls on recognition subscale Santangelo et al. 2018 [37]
Ictal, interictal Information processing speed Cross sectional, clinic based HCC-ANAM - Simple reaction time Increased cognitive processing time during a migraine attack Farmer et al., 2000, 2001 [9, 10]
Ictal   Cross sectional
No information about the recruitment of migraine sample
MEWT-1) Simple reaction time 2) Procedural reaction time Impairment in mental processing in migraine patients during a migraine attack Edwards et al., 2013 [11]
Ictal   Cross sectional, clinic based The word reading task of the Stroop Reduced processing speed in migraine patients during a migraine attack Gil-Gouveia et al., 2015 [8]
Post-ictal   Cross sectional
No information about the recruitment of migraine sample
Computerized posner paradigm, calculating visual reaction times Reaction times (RTs) during the post-ictal period were significantly higher than the RTs during interictal period Mazzucchi et al., 1988 [12]
Interictal   Cross sectional, clinic based Stroop Test, trail making test, choice reaction time, paced auditory serial addition test Increased reaction time in migraine patients Zeitlin et al., 1984 [39]
Interictal   Cross sectional, clinic based WAIS-R Digit Span Subtest Reduced visuomotor processing speed in migraine patients Hooker et al., 1986 [14]
Interictal   Cross sectional, clinic based Digit Symbol Substitution Test A poorer performance in visuomotor processing speed in migraine patients Calandre et al., 2002 [46]
Interictal   Cross sectional
No information about recruitment of migraine sample
Automatic attention task and conscious visual attention task High visual discomfort, rather than migraine is associated with poorer performance Conlon et al., 2001 [18]
Interictal   Cross sectional, population based Trail Making Test-B Decreased processing speed in migraine patients Pellegrino Baena et al., 2018 [25]
Interictal   Cross sectional
No information about the recruitment of migraine sample
Computerized posner paradigm, calculating visual reaction times Migraine patients had RTs during the interictal period that were not significantly different from control subjects Mazzucchi et al., 1988 [12]
Interictal   Cross sectional
The migraine patients were recruited from a meeting of a local organization for migraine patients and from patients of general practitioners
Simple Reaction Time, Symbol Digit Substitution Task, Color Word Vigilance Test, Pattern Comparison Task, Sternberg Memory Scanning Task No significant difference between migraine patients and control subjects Leijdekkers et al., 1990 [16]
Interictal   Cross sectional, clinic based Word Priming Task, Orientation Search Task, Temporal Discrimination Task No difference between migraine patients and control subjects regarding response time Palmer et al., 1998 [19]
Interictal   Cross sectional, clinic based Trail Making Test-Part A No difference between migraine patients and healthy controls Lo Buono et al., 2017 [20]
Ictal Verbal skills Cross sectional, clinic based The word reading task of the Stroop Disturbances in reading was observed in migraine patients during a migraine attack Gil-Gouveia et al., 2015 [8]
Interictal   Cross sectional, clinic based Mill Hill Vocabulary Scale No difference between migraine patients and controls Zeitlin et al., 1984 [39]
Interictal   Longitudinal, population based WISC-R Migraine patients were significantly impaired on tests of verbal ability between the ages 3 and 13 however no decline with age was observed Waldie et al., 2002 [30]
Interictal   Cross sectional
Migraine patients were recruited from college students
Aphasia screening test, Speech Sounds Perception Test No difference between migraine patients and controls Burker et al., 1989 [52]
Interictal   Cross sectional
The migraine patients were recruited from a meeting of a local organization for migraine patients and from patients of general practitioners
Vocabulary Test No significant difference between migraine patients and control subjects Leijdekkers et al., 1990 [16]
Interictal   Cross sectional, clinic based Verbal Fluency Test No difference between migraine patients and healthy controls Lo Buono et al., 2017 [20]
Ictal Calculation Cross sectional, clinic based HCC-ANAM - Mathematical processing Impairment in mathematical processing during a migraine attack Farmer et al., 2000, 2001 [9, 10]
Interictal   Cross sectional, clinic based Paced auditory serial addition test Disturbance in calculation ability in migraine patients Zeitlin et al., 1984 [39]
Interictal   Cross sectional, clinic based MoCA Calculation was impaired in migraine patients Huang et al.,2017 [13]
Ictal Somatosensory information processing Cross sectional, clinic based STD Prolonged STD threshold values Boran et al., 2016 [61]
Vuralli et al., 2017 [62]
Chronic migraine (during headache and headache free periods)   Cross sectional, clinic based STD Prolonged STD threshold values during both during headache and headache free periods Vuralli et al., 2016 [63]
  1. aIt was not stated whether the patients were evaluated on a headache day or a headache free day
  2. HCC-ANAM Headache Care Center-Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics, MEWT Mental Efficiency Workload Test, WAIS-R Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised, WMS Wechsler Memory Scale, STD Somatosensory temporal discrimination