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Table 9 Studies of SPG block for musculoskeletal pain

From: Sphenopalatine ganglion: block, radiofrequency ablation and neurostimulation - a systematic review

Musculoskeletal pain
Author Year Medical problems Approach Imaging Medication Number of cases Study design Outcome
Amster et al. [28] 1948 Lumbosacral and sacroiliac pain Cotton tipped applicator, transnasal approach None Nupercaine, pontocaine, monocaine 61 Case series Relief of pain and spasm in 90% of cases
Ruskin et al. [29] 1946 Lumbo-sacral spasm Unknown None Cocaine, novocaine or nupercaine 36 Case series Pain partially or completely relieved with SPGB and intramuscular injections of ironyl and calcium ascorbate
Berger et al. [32] 1986 Low back pain Cotton tip applicator and transnasal needle None Cocaine or lidocaine 7 cases with cocaine, 7 cases with lidocaine, 7 controls Case-control No statistical significance between cases and controls
Scudds et al. [3] 1995 Chronic muscle pain syndrome Cotton tipped applicator, transnasal approach None 4% lidocaine 42 with fibromyalgia, 19 with myofascial pain syndrome Double-blind randomized controlled No statistical significance between 4% lidocaine and placebo
Janzen et al. [30] 1997 Myofascial pain syndrome and fibromyalgia Nasal spray None 4% lidocaine 42 with fibromyalgia, 19 with myofascial pain syndrome Double-blind, placebo-controlled No statistical significance between 4% lidocaine and placebo
Ferrante et al. [31] 1998 Myofascial pain syndrome of the head, neck and shoulders NA None 4% lidocaine 13 cases, 7 controls Double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design No statistical significance