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Table 3  Risk of ischemic stroke in subjects with migraine according to use of hormonal contraceptives

From: Hormonal contraceptives and risk of ischemic stroke in women with migraine: a consensus statement from the European Headache Federation (EHF) and the European Society of Contraception and Reproductive Health (ESC)

Study Population Comparison Odds ratio (95% confidence interval) Adjustment factors
Any migraine     
 Collaborative Group, 1975 [33] Women with stroke, hospital controls Women with migraine and HC use vs non-migraineurs, non-HC users 4.6 (2.2–9.6)* Age
  Women with stroke, neighbor controls Women with migraine and HC use vs non-migraineurs, non-HC users 4.6 (2.2–9.6)* Age
 Lidegaard 1995 [36] Women with ischemic stroke, controls Smokers, HC users, and migraineurs vs non-smokers, non-HC users, and non-migraineurs 3.3 (P < 0.01) HC, diabetes, arterial hypertension, other diseases
 Tzourio, 1995 [18] Women with stroke, controls Women with migraine and HC use vs non-migraineurs, non-HC users 13.9 (5.5–35.1) Not reported
 Schwartz, 1998 [34] Women with migraine HC users vs non-HC users 2.1 (1.2–3.7) Age, smoking, body mass index
 Chang, 1999 [11] Women with stroke, controls Women with migraine and HC use vs non-migraineurs, non-HC users 16.9 (2.7–106) Hypertension, education, smoking, family history of migraine, alcohol use, social class
  Women with stroke, controls Women with migraine, smoke, and HC use vs non-migraineurs, non-smokers, and non-HC users 34.4 (3.3–361) Not reported
 Milhaud, 2001 [38] Women with ischemic stroke Women with migraine and HC use vs non-migraineurs, non-HC users 2.7 (1.2–6.0) Not reported
Migraine with aura     
 MacClellan, 2007 [17] Women with migraine with aura Smokers and HC users vs non-smokers and non-HC users 7.0 (1.4–22.8) Age, race, geographic region, study period
  Women with stroke, controls Women with migraine with aura, smokers, and HC users, vs non-migraineurs, non-smokers, and non-HC users 10.0 (1.4–73.7) Age, race, geographic region, study period
 Champaloux, 2017 [10] Women with stroke, controls Women with migraine with aura and HC users vs non-migraineurs and HC users 6.1 (3.1–12.1) Hypertension, diabetes, obesity, smoking, ischemic heart disease, valvular heart disease
  Women with stroke, controls Women with migraine with aura and non-HC users vs non-migraineurs and non-HC users 2.7 (1.9–3.7) Hypertension, diabetes, obesity, smoking, ischemic heart disease, valvular heart disease
Migraine without aura     
 Champaloux, 2017 [10] Women with stroke, controls Women with migraine without aura and HC users vs non-migraineurs and HC users 1.8 (1.1–2.9) Hypertension, diabetes, obesity, smoking, ischemic heart disease, valvular heart disease
  Women with stroke, controls Women with migraine without aura and non-HC users vs non-migraineurs and non-HC users 2.2 (1.9–2.7) Hypertension, diabetes, obesity, smoking, ischemic heart disease, valvular heart disease
  1. *Relative risk; HC indicates hormonal contraceptives