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Table 2 Prevalence of medication use for episodic migraine in Europe (column 2) and the applied adjustment factors in calculating MOH prevalence and risk ratios (columns 3–6)

From: Risk of medication overuse headache across classes of treatments for acute migraine

Country/Region Drug class (Prevalence, %) Analgesics Ergotamines Opioids Triptans
Denmark [41] Analgesics (NA) -- NA NA NA
Ergotamines (NA) NA -- NA NA
Opioids (2.0) NA NA -- 1:13 (0.08)
Triptans (26.0) NA NA 13:1 (13.0) --
France [40, 42] Analgesics (12.0) -- 4:1 (4.00) 6:1 (6.0) 6:10 (0.58)
Ergotamines (3.0) 1:4 (0.25) -- 3:2 (1.50) 1:7 (0.14)
Opioids (2.0) 1:6 (0.17) 2:3 (0.67) -- 1:10 (0.10)
Triptans (20.8) 10:6 (1.73) 7:1 (6.93) 10:1 (10.4) --
Germany [40, 42] Analgesics (31.0) -- 9:2 (4.43) 15:1 (15.0) 2:1 (2.14)
Ergotamines (7.0) 2:9 (0.23) -- 7:2 (3.50) 1:2 (0.48)
Opioids (2.0) 1:15 (0.06) 2:7 (0.29) -- 1:7 (0.14)
Triptans (14.5) 1:2 (0.47) 2:1 (2.07) 7:1 (7.25) --
Italy [40, 42] Analgesics (12.0) -- 12:3 (3.75) 6:1 (6.00) 4:5 (0.79)
Ergotamines (3.2) 3:12 (0.27) -- 8:5 (1.60) 1:5 (0.21)
Opioids (2.0) 1:6 (0.17) 5:8 (0.63) -- 1:8 (0.13)
Triptans (15.1) 5:4 (1.25) 5:1 (4.72) 8:1 (7.55) --
Norway [43] Analgesics (NA) -- NA NA NA
Ergotamines (NA) NA -- NA NA
Opioids (2.0) NA NA -- 1:19 (0.05)
Triptans (37.0) NA NA 19:1 (18.5) --
Spain [40] Analgesics (16.4) -- 4:5 (0.82) 8:1 (8.20) 1:2 (0.56)
Ergotamines (20.0) 5:4 (1.22) -- 10:1 (10.0) 2:3 (0.69)
Opioids (2.0) 1:8 (0.12) 1:10 (0.10) -- 1:15 (0.07)
Triptans (29.1) 2:1 (1.77) 3:2 (1.46) 15:1 (14.6) --
Sweden [23] Analgesics (NA) -- NA NA NA
Ergotamines (NA) NA -- NA NA
Opioids (2.0) NA NA -- 3:19 (0.16)
Triptans (26.0) NA NA 19:3 (6.34) --
  1. The medication use prevalence estimates presented in parenthesis next to treatment classes in column 2 are taken from included prevalence literature. The ratios (e.g. 3:1) presented in columns 3–6 are approximate ratios of prevalence of use of one medication over another. These ratios are also the adjustments factors multiplied to the unadjusted ratios of MOH for each study to account for the missing information about patients at risk on each medication within each study