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Table 1 Summary of data collection methods, and demographics of samples, in each country

From: Headache, depression and anxiety: associations in the Eurolight project

Country Sampling and data collection method Questionnaires distributed and returned Gender n Age (years)
N/n (mean ± SD)
Germany Random urban (50 %) and rural (50 %) samples aged 18–65 years from general population listings supplied by local municipal authority. Questionnaires distributed and returned by post. No reminders sent. 3000/318 M 136 45.7 ± 13.4
F 182 43.8 ± 11.8
Italy Random urban (70 %) and rural (30 %) samples drawn from general population using listings supplied by Azienda Sanitaria Locale of Pavia, stratified with regard to gender, age (in range 18–65 years) and education. Questionnaires distributed and returned by post. No reminders sent. 3500/487 M 203 44.9 ± 12.9
F 284 42.4 ± 12.3
Lithuania Sample drawn from Kaunas city and Kaunas region using Residents’ Register Service, reflecting age (in range 18–65 years) and gender composition of Lithuania and proportions living in rural (33 %) or urban (67 %) areas. Data collection face-to-face, conducted by medical students “cold-calling” door-to-door. 1137/573 M 237 39.8 ± 14.0
F 336 41.7 ± 13.7
Luxemburg Sample aged 18–65 years, stratified for age, gender, region and nationality, drawn from general population via national social security registry (IGSS). Questionnaires distributed and returned by post. Reminders sent one month later to non-responders. 6498/1833 M 769 40.8 ± 12.8
F 1064 40.3 ± 12.6
Netherlands Survey conducted by market research company with access to population sample of 200,000, representative with regard to gender, age (in range 18–65 years), region and education. Questionnaire distributed by internet, to be completed on-line. Study stopped when >2000 received back. unknown/2414 M 1214 43.7 ± 13.5
F 1200 41.6 ± 12.9
Spain Random sample of employees of companies operating in national postal services in 10 areas of Spain, stratified to be representative of general working population with regard to gender, age (in range 18–65 years) and education. Ten occupational health physicians delivered and took return of questionnaires. One telephone reminder to non-responders. 1700/999 M 410 44.1 ± 11.9
F 589 41.7 ± 11.8
All unknown/6624 M 2969 42.9 ± 13.2
F 3655 41.4 ± 12.6
All 6624 42.1 ± 12.9