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Table 1 Descriptive statistics for patiens who answered questions about headache frequency and were referred for sleep study due to a clinical suspicion of obstructive sleep apnea (N = 477) or other sleep disorder (N = 292)

From: Prevalence and predictors of headache in patients referred to polysomnography

   Obstructive sleep apnea Other sleep study
Normal Mild Moderate Severe Unknown
AHI <5 5-14 15-29 ≥30  
n 225 124 67 61 292
Age, years [mean (SD)]
  Male 42.9 (12.2) 49.1 (11.2) 52.0 (10.1) 51.1 (11.0) 40.7 (12.7)
  Female 43.2 (12.6) 51.1 (10.7) 56.0 (8.4) 50.9 (7.9) 41.2 (12.4)
Body mass index, kg/m2, mean (SD) (n = 761) 27.3 (5.0) 28.4 (4.6) 29.9 (4.6) 32.7 (5.7) 25.8 (5.2)
Male gender (n = 472) 56 (126) 70 (87) 84 (56) 92 (56) 50 (147)
Education (n = 760)
  Schooling up to 10 years 39 (87) 46 (57) 46 (30) 53 (31) 42 (123)
  High school degree 17 (37) 15 (19) 11 (7) 15 (9) 20 (59)
  University or college education 44 (97) 39 (48) 44 (29) 32 (19) 37 (108)
Employment (n = 757)
  Student 5 (11) 2 (2) 0 (0) 2 (1) 4 (32)
  Homemaker 3 (6) 1 (1) 2 (1) 0 (0) 3 (8)
  Retired/sick leave/disablement benefits 26 (57) 33 (41) 28 (18) 31 (18) 34 (97)
  Unemployed 1 (2) 3 (4) 3 (2) 0 (0) 5 (13)
  Employed part time 12 (26) 12 (15) 12 (8) 3 (2) 10 (30)
  Employed full time 53 (117) 49 (61) 55 (36) 64 (38) 43 (124)
Current smoker (n = 253) 34 (76) 30 (37) 25 (17) 37 (22) 35 (101)
Epworth Sleepiness Scale >10 (n = 378) 51 (114) 47 (58) 48 (32) 59 (36) 47 (138)
  1. Percent (number), unless otherwise stated.