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Table 1 Distribution of age, sex, sleep medication, mean ESS, and mean KSQ by headache diagnoses

From: Associations between sleep disturbance and primary headaches: the third Nord-Trøndelag Health Study

  No headache Definite TTH Definite migraine Other headachesa
Number 77 135 51 34
Mean age, with 95% CI (years) 57.2 (54–61) 52.6 (50–55) 44.0 (41–47) 52.6 (48–56)
Womenb (%) 31.2 57.8 62.7* 32.4
Use of painkillers last monthc (%) 0 34.1 70.6* 50.0
Use of prophylactic drugs (%) 0 2.2 2.0 0
Use of sleep medication (%) 2.6 8.1 6.0 14.7*
HADS A ≥ 8 (%) 4.2 13.0* 19.6** 21.2**
HADS D ≥ 8 (%) 4.2 11.5 8.5 12.1
Employed (%) 73.0 73.6 84.0 80.6
Exercise ≥2 times a week (%) 60.8 54.0 56.3 42.1
Mean ESS score with 95% CI 5.3 (4.5–6.1) 5.2 (4.6–5.7) 6.3 (5.3–7.3) 6.4 (5.1–7.6)
ESS score ≥10 (%) 9.1 9.6 20.0 23.5
KSQ score ≥75 percentile (%) 13.2 30.4** 33.3** 32.4*
  1. Compared with headache-free: * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, *** P < 0.001
  2. aProbable tension-type headache (TTH) (n = 8), probable migraine (n = 5), medication overuse headache (MOH) (n = 5), hangover-headache (n = 6), headache attributed to systemic viral infection (n = 4), rhinosinusitis (n = 2), cerviogenic headache (n = 1), caffeine-withdrawal headache (n = 1), persistent idiopathic facial pain (n = 1) and primary exertional headache (n = 1)
  3. bCompared with all other participants: * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, *** P < 0.001
  4. cCompared with subjects with TTH: * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, *** P < 0.001