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  1. The aim of the present study was to map the presence of neurotransmitters and nitric oxid synthase (NOS) in the trigeminal nucleus caudalis and cervical spinal cord of cat. Immunocytochemistry was used to map ...

    Authors: Tove Christiansen, Anitha Bruun, Yolande E. Knight, Peter J. Goadsby and Lars Edvinsson

    Citation: The Journal of Headache and Pain 2003 4:51

    Content type: ORIGINAL

    Published on:

  2. A multicenter one-year study was carried out on 6629 headache patients under 18 years of age, attending 27 centers and clinics devoted to headache in Italy to identify the prevalence of cluster headache (CH) i...

    Authors: Beatrice Gallai, Giovanni Mazzotta, Francesca Floridi, Alessia Mattioni, Antonio Baldi, Andrea Alberti, Paola Sarchielli and Virgilio Gallai

    Citation: The Journal of Headache and Pain 2003 4:47

    Content type: ORIGINAL

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  3. Nummular headache is characterized by mild to moderate, pressure-like head pain exclusively in a small, rounded or oval area without underlying structural lesions. Either during symptomatic periods or interict...

    Authors: Juan A. Pareja, Julia Pareja and Julio Yangüela

    Citation: The Journal of Headache and Pain 2003 4:46

    Content type: REVIEW

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  4. Chronic daily headache relates to the daily or almost daily occurrence of headache in a nonparoxysmal pattern. In this review, I discuss the presentation, development, outcome, and treatment of chronic daily h...

    Authors: Egilius L. H. Spierings

    Citation: The Journal of Headache and Pain 2003 4:45

    Content type: REVIEW

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  5. A preliminary, open label study was conducted on 20 patients with migraine without aura and with high headache frequency to assess the efficacy and tolerability of the new antiepileptic drug levetiracetam. Pat...

    Authors: Virgilio Gallai, Andrea Alberti, Cristiana Rossi, Francesca Coppola, Beatrice Gallai, Giovanni Mazzotta and Paola Sarchielli

    Citation: The Journal of Headache and Pain 2003 4:43

    Content type: RAPID COMMUNICATION

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  6. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the use of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A; BOTOX; Allergan, Inc.; Irvine, CA) as preventive treatment of chronic tension-type headache (CTH) on analgesic ...

    Authors: Gabriella Coloprisco, Sergio De Filippis, Pier Giorgio Santi, Giuseppe Fiore, Anna Rodio and Paolo Martelletti

    Citation: The Journal of Headache and Pain 2003 4:37

    Content type: RAPID COMMUNICATION

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  7. The aim of this study was to determine postures adopted by patients during migraine attack. A total of 199 migraine patients were questioned about their postures during the migraine attack. Of these, 92 patien...

    Authors: H. Macit Selekler, Hafize Can and Faik Budak

    Citation: The Journal of Headache and Pain 2003 4:36

    Content type: ORIGINAL

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  8. We audited the expectations of patients referred to a combined headache clinic from a specialist headache clinic and a pain relief unit due to the intractable nature of their headache. Our aim was to assess th...

    Authors: Paul T. G. Davies, Chris J. Glynn and Miriam A. Kadry

    Citation: The Journal of Headache and Pain 2003 4:35

    Content type: ORIGINAL

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  9. Patients with chronic tension- type headache (CTTH) are the most difficult to treat. Tricyclic antidepressants are the first-line therapeutic agents, but their anticholinergic side effects limit their usage. S...

    Authors: Cavit Boz, Vildan Altunayoglu, Sibel Velioglu and Mehmet Ozmenoglu

    Citation: The Journal of Headache and Pain 2003 4:34

    Content type: ORIGINAL

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  10. We performed a prevalence study to compare some lifestyle habits between subjects with migraine and those with nonmigraine primary headaches. We surveyed female students in randomly selected classes of the Sch...

    Authors: Hristina Vlajinac, Sandra Šipetić, Eleonora Džoljić, Jadranka Maksimović, Jelena Marinković and Vlada Kostić

    Citation: The Journal of Headache and Pain 2003 4:33

    Content type: ORIGINAL

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  11. Clinical studies suggest that hyperhomocysteinemia could be considered an independent risk factor for premature cerebral, peripheral and vascular diseases. A number of authors found an epidemiological correlat...

    Authors: Eleonora Ferraris, Nadia Marzocchi, Daria Brovia, Carmela N. Castellana and Luigi A. Pini

    Citation: The Journal of Headache and Pain 2003 4:32

    Content type: ORIGINAL

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  12. This article describes the mathematical process of building a model of migraine syndrome guided by research data and evidences. The paper illustrates the construction of a new possible model of the evolution, ...

    Authors: Maria Nicolodi and Federigo Sicuteri†

    Citation: The Journal of Headache and Pain 2003 4:31

    Content type: SPECIAL ARTICLE

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  13. If migraine or a migrainelike headache and stroke occur together, it is difficult to determine whether migraine is the cause of the stroke or stroke is the cause of symptomatic migraine. We report the case of...

    Authors: Josef G. Heckmann, Christoph J.G. Lang, Margarete Weber, Bernd Tomandl and Bernhard Neundörfer

    Citation: The Journal of Headache and Pain 2003 4:00026

    Content type: BRIEF REPORT

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  14. Familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) is a rare autosomal dominant-type migraine with aura. Attacks are characterised by hemiparesis in addition to other aura and migraine symptoms. Few studies have examined the...

    Authors: Michele Roccella

    Citation: The Journal of Headache and Pain 2003 4:00025

    Content type: ORIGINAL

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  15. We observed the occurrence of neuromuscular hyperexcitability, assessed with electromyographic ischemic tests, in headache patients in relation to Mg++ levels in serum, red blood cells and mononuclear cells. Cli...

    Authors: Giovanni Mazzotta, Paola Sarchielli, Andrea Alberti, Elisabetta Cittadini and Virgilio Gallai

    Citation: The Journal of Headache and Pain 2003 4:00024

    Content type: ORIGINAL

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  16. We describe a series of experiments designed to investigate the mechanisms by which headaches can be triggered by red wine in a small minority of migraine patients. Some red wines are particularly potent rele...

    Authors: Richard C. Peatfield, Gordon Fletcher, Keith Rhodes, Ian M. Gardiner and Jacqueline de Belleroche

    Citation: The Journal of Headache and Pain 2003 4:00023

    Content type: REVIEW

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  17. The main goals of prophylactic treatment for migraine are to decrease headache attack frequency, length and intensity, to improve the efficacy of symptomatic drugs, to reduce their need, and to prevent pain c...

    Authors: Emilio Sternieri, Anna Ferrari and Arrigo F.G. Cicero

    Citation: The Journal of Headache and Pain 2003 4:00022

    Content type: REVIEW

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  18. The role of daily analgesic use (also called abuse) in chronic daily headache (CDH) for the maintenance of chronic headache is discussed. The comprehension of the underlying mechanisms of actions is lacking m...

    Authors: Luigi A. Pini

    Citation: The Journal of Headache and Pain 2003 4:00020

    Content type: EDITORIAL

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  19. Triptans are presently a milestone in the treatment of migraine patients. Because of their effectiveness and safety, they have radically improved migraine treatment but their use has meant a substantial incre...

    Authors: Giuseppe Stirparo, Fabio Palazzo, Sergio De Filippis and Paolo Martelletti

    Citation: The Journal of Headache and Pain 2003 4(Suppl 1):00019

    Content type: SELECTED PRESENTATION

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  20. Headache represents not only an individual disease, but also an important pathology for society because its prevalence in the population is about 50.0%. Its physical, emotional, social and economic impacts ar...

    Authors: Stefania Iannazzo, Maria S. Cattaruzza, Sergio De Filippis, Flora Rossi, Edea Perata, Samanta Di Rollo, Gabriella Coloprisco and Paolo Martelletti

    Citation: The Journal of Headache and Pain 2003 4(Suppl 1):00018

    Content type: SELECTED PRESENTATION

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  21. Although headache is a common complaint, only few sufferers seek specific medical assistance. Migraine is one of the most frequently encountered varieties of headache. The first presentation of migraine is im...

    Authors: Rosario Iannacchero, Umberto Cannistrà, Rita L. Trinchi, Antonio La Vitola, Francesco Peltrone and Emilio De Caro

    Citation: The Journal of Headache and Pain 2003 4(Suppl 1):00017

    Content type: SELECTED PRESENTATION

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  22. The World Headache Alliance (WHA) works to reduce the burden of headache worldwide. Headache disorders are real, common and affect people of all ages, everywhere in the world. To reduce the burden resulting f...

    Authors: Audrey Craven and Kary Shannon

    Citation: The Journal of Headache and Pain 2003 4(Suppl 1):00016

    Content type: PUBLIC AND LAY ORGANIZATIONS

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  23. Headache is the most frequent reason for neurological consultation, but also a comorbidity often encountered by GPs. The costs of headache are considerable: direct and indirect costs contribute to varying deg...

    Authors: Antonietta Citterio, Grazia Sances, Giorgio Sandrini, Tiziana Repossi and Giuseppe Nappi

    Citation: The Journal of Headache and Pain 2003 4(Suppl 1):00015

    Content type: PUBLIC AND LAY ORGANIZATIONS

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  24. Health services are rarely highly successful in meeting the needs of people with headache disorders, who everywhere are low in the priority queue. Taking the UK as an example within Europe, this paper briefly...

    Authors: Timothy J. Steiner

    Citation: The Journal of Headache and Pain 2003 4(Suppl 1):00014

    Content type: PUBLIC AND LAY ORGANIZATIONS

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  25. Triptans are presently a milestone in the treatment of migraine patients. Because of their effectiveness and safety, they have radically improved migraine treatment but their use has meant a substantial incre...

    Authors: Pietro Folino-Gallo, Fabio Palazzo, Giuseppe Stirparo, Sergio De Filippis and Paolo Martelletti

    Citation: The Journal of Headache and Pain 2003 4(Suppl 1):00013

    Content type: PHARMACOECONOMY

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  26. The major aim of the paper is to give an epidemiologist's viewpoint on several points related to the evaluation of the costs of migraine and to answer some questions that are important if one wishes to decrea...

    Authors: Jean François Dartigues, Philippe Michel and Patrick Henry

    Citation: The Journal of Headache and Pain 2003 4(Suppl 1):00012

    Content type: PHARMACOECONOMY

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  27. The EuroMedicines Project created a single drug directory at a single time point (late 1998) to cover most of the member states of the European Union (EU) and some of the candidate states, so as to aid drug r...

    Authors: Tom Walley

    Citation: The Journal of Headache and Pain 2003 4(Suppl 1):00011

    Content type: PHARMACOECONOMY

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  28. The term “disease costing” applies to those economic appraisal methodologies that ascertain the cost borne by a community because of a disease. This approach has been used to calculate the social and economic...

    Authors: Amalia Donia Sofio, Franco Mazzuca and Francesco S. Mennini

    Citation: The Journal of Headache and Pain 2003 4(Suppl 1):00010

    Content type: PHARMACOECONOMY

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  29. Information on the prevalence and health burden of headache in Africa is scanty. Earlier studies in the 1970s suggested that migraine was a rare condition in the African. This may have been due to an underdia...

    Authors: Redda Tekle Haimanot

    Citation: The Journal of Headache and Pain 2003 4(Suppl 1):00009

    Content type: SPECIAL LECTURE

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  30. Migraine is associated with functional impairment. The migraine disability assessment (MIDAS) questionnaire is a scientific instrument which captures headache-related disability. The Italian version of MIDAS ...

    Authors: Domenico D'Amico and Gennaro Bussone

    Citation: The Journal of Headache and Pain 2003 4(Suppl 1):00008

    Content type: INTANGIBLE COSTING

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  31. Population-based studies have shown that migraineurs have reduced HRQoL independent of depression. Furthermore, HRQoL is reduced with increasing migraine attack frequency. In both population-based and clinic-...

    Authors: Gisela M. Terwindt, Michel D. Ferrari and Lenore J. Launer

    Citation: The Journal of Headache and Pain 2003 4(Suppl 1):00007

    Content type: INTANGIBLE COSTING

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  32. Measuring population health is important to evaluate the impact of interventions, to monitor the changes in health status, and to predict the need for health care. A number of tools have been developed to mea...

    Authors: Paola Mosconi and Giovanni Apolone

    Citation: The Journal of Headache and Pain 2003 4(Suppl 1):00006

    Content type: INTANGIBLE COSTING

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  33. Economic evaluation of health care programs or technologies requires distinguishing three types of costs: direct, indirect and human. The first two types do not imply peculiar methodological issues to quantif...

    Authors: Fabio Palazzo, Giuseppe Stirparo and Lorenzo Terranova

    Citation: The Journal of Headache and Pain 2003 4(Suppl 1):00005

    Content type: INTANGIBLE COSTING

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  34. Comorbidity of migraine is important from a number of different perspectives. Co-occurrence of different diseases may complicate diagnosis as a high degree of symptomatic overlap may occur among conditions as...

    Authors: Antonio Carolei, Irene Ciancarelli, Davide Cerone and Simona Sacco

    Citation: The Journal of Headache and Pain 2003 4(Suppl 1):00004

    Content type: GLOBAL BURDEN

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  35. One-year migraine prevalence rates in the general population for Western countries vary from 4% to 9% in men and from 11% to 25% in women. Non-Western countries report lower figures. Incidence rates for peopl...

    Authors: Gian Camillo Manzoni and Paola Torelli

    Citation: The Journal of Headache and Pain 2003 4(Suppl 1):00003

    Content type: GLOBAL BURDEN

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  36. This paper briefly describes some of the work developed by the World Health Organization in the field of health, disability and burden of diseases and how this work has relevant implications for migraine and,...

    Authors: Matilde Leonardi

    Citation: The Journal of Headache and Pain 2003 4(Suppl 1):00002

    Content type: GLOBAL BURDEN

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  37. Migraine is a highly prevalent headache disorder that has a substantial impact on the individual and on society. Over the past decade, substantial advances in research have increased understanding of the path...

    Authors: Richard B. Lipton, Marcelo E. Bigal, Ann I. Scher and Walter F. Stewart

    Citation: The Journal of Headache and Pain 2003 4(Suppl 1):00001

    Content type: GLOBAL BURDEN

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1