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Table 3 Characteristics of studies regarding association between migraine and risk of dementia

From: Association between migraine and cognitive impairment

Study Study type Type of migraine Study location Sample size Age (years) Gender (male%) Adjusted variables Follow-up time (years) Result
Tyas et al. 2001 [36] case-control migraine USA AD 36/HC 658 79.8 ± 5.7 33.3% age, education and sex, occupational exposure to fumigants/defoliants NA AD 3.49 (1.39–8.77)
Chuang et al. 2013 [37] cohort migraine China Migraine 33,468, no Migraine 133,872 42.4 28.7% age, sex, diabetes, hypertension, depression, head injury, and CHD 12 All-cause Dementia 1.33 (1.22–1.46)
Pavlovic et al. 2013 [38] cohort Migraine USA Migraine 136 no Migraine 838 ≥70 NA age, sex, education, depression, hypertension, diabetes, stroke, myocardial infarction, and other heart conditions NA All-cause dementia 0.56 (0.27–1.18)
Hagen et al. 2014 [39] cohort Migraine (MwA, MWoA) Norway Migraine 6740, no headache 29,988 49.7 46.1% age, sex, education, total HADS score, and smoking 6 VaD 2.9 (1.3–6.6)
MwA 3.0 (0.4–22.5)
MWoA 2.7 (1.1–6.7)
Tzeng et al. 2017 [40] cohort migraine China Migraine 1922 no headache 10,860 ≥20 31.96 urbanization level, insured premium 10 All-cause Dementia 1.995 (1.572–2.533)
Kostev et al. 2019 [41] cohort migraine Germany Migraine 3727, no Migraine 3727 67.7 27.1% age, sex, index year, and co-diagnoses using a propensity score method 10 All-cause dementia 1.43 (1.07–1.78); VaD 1.51 (0.74–2.28); AD 1.87 (1.21–2.52); Unspecified dementia 1.11 (0.57–1.65)
Lee et al. 2019 [14] case-control migraine Seoul Dementia 11,438 HC 45,752 ≥60 32% age, sex, income, region of residence, hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia NA All-cause dementia 1.13 (1.05–1.23)
Morton et al. 2019 [42] cohort migraine Canada Migraine 200 no Migraine 479 75.9 38.1% age, sex, education, depression, hypertension, diabetes, stroke, myocardial infarction, and other heart conditions 5 2.97 (1.25–6.61) AD 4.22 (1.59–10.42)
VaD 1.52 (0.20–7.23)
George et al. 2020 [15] cohort Migraine (MwA, MWoA) USA Migraine 1397 no Migraine 9955 60 44.1% age, race-center, APOE ε4, income and education. BMI, smoking status, hypertension, diabetes, prevalent CHD, drinking status, HDL cholesterol, and total cholesterol 21 All-cause Dementia 1.04 (0.91–1.2) MwA 1.12 (0.88, 1.43)
MWoA 1.01 (0.86, 1.19)
Islamoska et al. 2020 [16] Case-control Migraine (MwA, MWoA) Denmark Migraine 1397 no Migraine 9955 18.3 51% sex, country of origin, marital status, educational level, headache diagnoses, psychiatric morbidities, and Charlson Comorbidity Index 18.3 All-cause Dementia 1.5 (1.28–1.76) MwA 2.11 (1.48–3.00)
MWoA 1.19 (0.84–1.70) All other migraine types 1.48 (1.23–1.78)
Liang et al. 2022 [43] cohort Migraine Sweden Migraine 352 no Migraine 305 NR NR NR 3 or 6 All-cause Dementia 0.49 (0.20–1.21) MWoA 0.66 (0.26–1.66)
  1. Abbreviations AD, Alzheimer’s disease, APOE apolipoprotein E, CHD coronary heart disease, HADS Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, HC healthy control, MwA migraine with aura, MWoA migraine without aura, NA not applicable, NR not reported, USA United States, VaD vascular dementia