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Table 2 Characteristics of studies regarding comparison in various cognition between migraine group and no migraine group

From: Association between migraine and cognitive impairment

Study Study type Type of migraine Study location Sample size Age (years) Gender (male%) Disease duration (years) Attack frequency (times/year) Duration of migraine attack (h) Pain intensity (0–10) Cognitive function
Zeitlin et al. 1984 [19] Cross-sectional migraine UK 19/19 36.3 NR NR NR NR NR Attention, executive function, memory
Jelicic et al. 2000 [12] Cross-sectional migraine The Neth-erlands 99/ 1753 52.0 35% NR NR NR NR Attention, memory
Calandre et al. 2002 [20] Cross-sectional migraine Spain 60/30 37.8 36.7% NR NR NR NR Executive function, attention, memory
Haverkamp et al. 2002 [21] Cross-sectional migraine Germany 37/17 10 59.4% NR NR NR NR Memory
Gaist et al. 2005 [11] Cohort MWoA and MwA Denmark 536/857 56.4 (6.2) 29.8% NR NR NR NR Executive function, language, memory, attention
Pearson et al. 2006 [13] Cross-sectional MWoA and MwA UK 74/74 64.4 26% NR NR NR NR Executive function, language
Camarda et al. 2007 [7] Cross-sectional MwA Italy 45/90 33.6 (8.6) 31.1% 13.3 (7.7) 34.4 (20.3) 29.6 (20.9) 2.0 (0.8) General cognitive function, executive function, language, attention
Kalaydjian et al. 2007 [22] Cross-sectional Migraine (MwA) USA 204/1244 47.5 (12.5) 14.7% NR NR NR NR General cognitive function
Baars et al. 2010 [23] Cohort migraine the Netherlands 99/ 1724 47.1 (12.9) 36.4% NR NR NR NR General cognitive function, executive function, memory
Rist et al. 2011 [24] Cross-sectional migraine France 167/ 938 69.0 (2.9) 15.0% NR NR NR NR General cognitive function, attention, executive function, memory
Martins et al. 2012 [25] Cross-sectional migraine Portugal 61/367 61.9 8.19% NR NR NR NR memory
Rist et al. 2012 [26] Cohort MWoA and MwA USA MWoA 248/ MwA 195/ HC 5496 MWoA 65.3 (3.6)/ MwA 65.9 (3.9) NR NR NR NR NR language, executive function
Santangelo et al. 2016 [27] Cross-sectional MWoA Italy 72/72 34.9 ± 11.2 12.5% 15.1 ± 11.6 73.2 NR NR General cognitive function, executive function, language, attention, memory
Wang et al. 2016 [28] Cross-sectional migraine China MV 40/ Simple migraine 40/40 MV 42.7 ± 13.3/ Simple migraine 42.2 ± 15.4 MV 40%/ Simple migraine 45% NR NR NR NR General cognitive function, executive function, attention, memory
Wen et al. 2016 [10] Cross-sectional migraine The Netherlands 1021/5399 63.8 (11.1) 18.7% NR NR NR NR General cognitive function
Huang et al. 2017 [29] Cross-sectional migraine China 34/24 36.065 ± 10.046 NR 11.25 ± 9.290 42.384 23.4 ± 24.197 6.383 ± 1.670 General cognitive function, executive function, attention, memory, language, visuospatial function
Lo et al. 2017 [30] Cross-sectional MWoA and MwA Italy 14/14/14 MwA 41.28 ± 13.44 MWoA 40.75 ± 11.82 NR MwA 10.9 ± 3.7 MWoA 12.3 ± 5.8 MwA 60.6 MWoA 72.84 MwA 3.58 ± 2.27 MWoA 4.21 ± 2.99 NR Attention, language, memory, executive functions
Ferreira et al. 2018 [31] Cross-sectional CM Brazil 30/30 33.7 4.3% NR 144 NR 8.5 General cognitive function, executive function, attention, memory, language, visuospatial function
Tunç et al. 2018 [32] Cross-sectional migraine Turkey 100/80 36.7 ±  9.4 9% 7.4 ± 7.1 43.2 NR NR General cognitive function, attention, memory, language, visuospatial function
Baschi et al. 2019 [33] Cross-sectional MWoA Italy 21/21 29 (4.32) 42.8% 8.57 (3.69) 39.12 NR NR Visuospatial memory, Verbal memory, Attention, Executive functions
Karami et al. 2019 [34] Cross-sectional migraine Iran 30/31 25.33 NR NR NR NR NR memory
Martins et al. 2020 [35] Cohort migraine Portugal 35/214 61.1 ± 7.4 6% NR NR NR NR General cognitive function, executive function, memory
  1. Abbreviations: CM chronic migraine, MwA migraine with aura, MWoA migraine without aura, NR not reported, PIQ performance intelligent quotient, TIQ total intelligence quotient, UK United Kingdom, USA United States, VIQ verbal intelligence quotient