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Table 2 Comparisons of demographics and clinical characteristics between CM with and without MOH

From: Gamma-aminobutyric acid and glutamate/glutamine levels in the dentate nucleus and periaqueductal gray with episodic and chronic migraine: a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study

  Without MOH (n = 12) With MOH (n = 12) P
Age, years 32.25 ± 17.96 43.25 ± 8.89 0.054
Female, n (%) 6 (50.00) 10 (83.33) 0.091
Age at onset, years 19.25 ± 12.71 21.08 ± 8.52 0.682
Disease duration, years 12.08 ± 9.28 22.17 ± 12.41 0.034*
Headache intensitya 6.92 ± 1.24 7.58 ± 1.16 0.188
Headache frequency, days/month 18.75 ± 5.17 25.00 ± 6.74 0.018*
BMI (kg/m2) 22.09 ± 2.70 22.48 ± 4.42 0.798
MIDAs (0–270) 108.57 ± 73.51 92.17 ± 54.00 0.661
HIT-6 (36–78) 65.57 ± 6.24 59.83 ± 12.75 0.313
PHQ-9 (0–27) 9.14 ± 6.09 7.17 ± 5.19 0.546
GAD-7 (0–21) 7.29 ± 6.37 5.17 ± 4.58 0.512
PSQI (0–21) 5.86 ± 4.14 10.80 ± 3.70 0.059
MoCA (0–30) 27.57 ± 1.40 27.00 ± 2.92 0.658
  1. MO Medication overuse, BMI Body Mass Index, MIDAs Migraine Disability Assessment Scale, HIT-6 Headache Impact Test-6, PHQ-9 Patient Health Questionnaire-9, GAD-7 Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, PSQI Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, MoCA Montreal Cognitive Assessment
  2. *P < 0.05, Statistically significant;
  3. aHeadache intensity in a 0–10 numerical rating scale