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Table 1 Comparisons of demographics and clinical characteristics between episodic and chronic migraine patients and normal controls

From: Gamma-aminobutyric acid and glutamate/glutamine levels in the dentate nucleus and periaqueductal gray with episodic and chronic migraine: a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study

  C (n = 16) EM (n = 25) CM (n = 24) P
Age, years 30.75 ± 5.98 37.16 ± 14.02 37.25 ± 15.15 0.236
Female, n (%) 8 (50.00) 19 (76.00) 16 (66.67) 0.237
Age at onset, years NA 23.30 ± 9.78 20.17 ± 10.63 0.288
Disease duration, years NA 14.74 ± 10.15 12.08 ± 9.07 0.340
Headache intensitya NA 6.88 ± 1.92 7.25 ± 1.22 0.428
Headache frequency, days/month NA 6.88 ± 3.56 21.88 ± 6.69  < 0.001***
BMI (kg/m2) 21.67 ± 2.72 22.51 ± 3.50 22.29 ± 3.59 0.564
MIDAs (0–270) NA 52.60 ± 37.30 101.00 ± 63.16 0.033*
HIT-6 (36–78) NA 68.40 ± 5.64 62.92 ± 9.80 0.131
PHQ-9 (0–27) NA 4.60 ± 3.72 8.23 ± 5.56 0.090
GAD-7 (0–21) NA 5.10 ± 5.43 6.31 ± 5.50 0.605
PSQI (0–21) NA 9.50 ± 4.58 7.92 ± 4.56 0.428
MoCA (0–30) NA 27.78 ± 1.86 27.33 ± 2.06 0.616
  1. C Control, EM Episodic migraine, CM Chronic migraine, NA Not applicable, BMI Body Mass Index, MIDAs Migraine Disability Assessment Scale, HIT-6 Headache Impact Test-6, PHQ-9 Patient Health Questionnaire-9, GAD-7 Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, PSQI Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, MoCA Montreal Cognitive Assessment
  2. *P < 0.05, Statistically significant
  3. ***P < 0.001, Statistically significant
  4. aHeadache intensity in a 0–10 numerical rating scale