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Table 4 Annual healthcare and non-healthcare costs associated with migraine patient management and preventive treatment persistence

From: Persistence, use of resources and costs in patients under migraine preventive treatment: the PERSEC study

  Non-persistent patients
N = 5414 (69.4%)
Persistent patients
N = 2390 (30.6%)
Difference (Persistent – Non-persistent)
N = 7866
Health servicesa, € patient-year
Primary Care visits,
  Mean (SD) 278.1 (204.1) 208.9 (200.9) -69.2
  95% CI    (-79.0; -59.4)
Specialist visits
  Mean (SD) 199.4 (104.4) 100.7 (87.8) -98.7
  95% CI    (-103.5; -93.9)
A&E admissions
  Mean (SD) 156.9 (259.2) 56.2 (135.3) -100.7
  95% CI    (-111.7; -89.7)
Hospital stays
  Mean (SD) 76.2 (681.4) 59.8 (628.0) -16.5
  95% CI    (-48.5; 15.6)
Medical testsb, € patient-year
Laboratory tests
  Mean (SD) 45.2 (38.7) 23.6 (34.4) -21.6
  95% CI    (-23.4; -19.8)
Conventional radiology
  Mean (SD) 30.2 (41.4) 28.0 (40.2) -2.2
  95% CI    (-4.2; -0.2)
CT scan
  Mean (SD) 6.4 (26.0) 4.9 (22.5) -1.5
  95% CI    (-2.7; -0.3)
MRI
  Mean (SD) 21.7 (77.0) 19.5 (72.4) -2.2
  95% CI    (-5.9; 1.4)
Other tests
  Mean (SD) 55.9 (57.0) 48.4 (50.4) -7.5
  95% CI    (-10.2; -4.9)
Medicationc, € patient-year
Symptomatic medication
  Mean (SD) 254.8 (769.4) 257.7 (933.3) 2.9
  95% CI    (-36.7; 42.5)
Preventive medication
  Mean (SD) 155.9 (368.1) 152.3 (373.6) -3.5
  95% CI    (-21.3; 14.3)
Concomitant medication
  Mean (SD) 162.0 (389.4) 141.5 (437.9) -20.5
  95% CI    (-40.0; -1.0)
Total healthcare direct costs, € patient-year
 Mean (SD) 1,476.8 (1,472.9) 1,127.1 (1,521.4) -349.8
 95% CI    (-421.4; -278.1)
Non-healthcare indirect costs, € patient-yeard
 Mean (SD) 1,490.0 (3,930.0) 1,217.7 (3,786.4) -272.3
 95% CI    (-459.4; -85.2)
Total costs, € patient-year
 Mean (SD) 2,966.8 (4,352.6) 2,344.8 (4,189.1) -622.1
 95% CI    (-829.2; -414.9)
Adjusted costs, € patient-yeare
 Mean 2,929.0 2,346.0 -583.0
 (95% CI) (2,784.0;3,073.0) (2,130.0;2,562.0) (-708.0; -458.0)
  1. CCI Charlson Comorbidity Index, CI confidence interval, CT computed tomography, MRI magnetic resonance imaging, SD standard deviation, VAT Value-Added Tax
  2. aUnit costs as per the 2019 analytical accounts: Primary Care visit: €23.2; specialist visit (Neurology, Internal Medicine and Anaesthesiology only): €92.5; A&E admission: €117.5; overnight hospital stay: €480.9; pain clinic visit: €185.0
  3. bUnit costs as per the 2019 analytical accounts: laboratory tests: €32.3; conventional radiology: €28.5; CT scan: €96.0; MRI: €177.0; other diagnostic tests: €47.1
  4. cUnit costs including VAT at the time of prescription
  5. dUnworked day cost: €101.21
  6. eANCOVA model, least square means corrected for the following covariates: gender, age, CCI and time since diagnosis