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Table 6 Bivariate analyses of active headache disorders according to methodological aspects of studies

From: The global prevalence of headache: an update, with analysis of the influences of methodological factors on prevalence estimates

  Headache (183 studies) Migraine (244 studies) TTH (110 studies) H15+ (59 studies)
Correlations r p r p r p r p
Year of publication 0.09 0.22 0.30 < 0.0005 −0.03 0.8 0.20 0.14
Number (ln transformed) of participants −0.27 < 0.001 −0.26 < 0.001 −0.17 0.07 −0.33 0.01
Participating proportion (9 categories) 0.11 0.15 0.02 0.7 −0.11 0.2 −0.02 0.9
Age (mid-range value) (years) −0.14 0.05 0.03 0.6 0.13 0.2 0.14 0.3
Summed quality score 0.03 0.7 −0.02 0.8 − 0.02 0.8 0.00 1.0
Means of reported prevalences (%) Mean (SD, N)   Mean (SD, N) p Mean (SD, N) p Mean (SD, N) p
Populationa General/schools 51.9 (22.7, 142) 1.0 13.5 (8.4, 177) 0.2 26.5 (17.0, 85) 0.6 4.8 (3.1, 54) 0.2
Selected 52.2 (22.7, 41) 15.5 (11.1, 66) 24.4 (21.1, 25) 3.0 (2.1, 5)
Health-care personnelb No 50.2 (25.4, 33) 0.3 13.4 (9.1, 52) 0.03 23.3 (22.9, 19) 0.7 3.0 (2.1, 5)
Yes 60.0 (22.9, 8) 23.0 (14.7, 15) 27.8 (15.2, 6)
Sampling methodc Random 54.7 (23.2, 44) 0.4 12.8 (8.1, 184) 0.002 25.7 (18.6, 83) 0.8 4.5 (3.2, 51) 0.4
Not random 51.1 (23.1, 139) 18.0 (11.4, 60) 26.8 (16.0, 27) 5.5 (2.1, 8)
Mode of engagementd Telephone/face-to face 50.8 (23.6, 95) 0.5 13.1 (8.8, 136) 0.07 26.3 (18.7, 66) 0.8 5.5 (3.5, 32) 0.02
Questionnaire 53.2 (22.6, 88) 15.3 (9.8, 108) 25.5 (17.0, 44) 3.6 (2.0, 27)
Validation of diagnostic methode Yes 51.2 (24.3, 93) 0.7 14.3 (10.3, 107) 0.7 25.6 (18.0, 56) 0.8 4.6 (3.2, 41) 0.9
No 52.8 (22.1, 90) 13.8 (8.5, 137) 26.(18.0, 54) 4.7 (2.6, 18)
dMig and pMigf Yes 55.4 (20.8, 46) 0.3 19.2 (9.9, 59) < 0.001 27.6 (15.9, 41) 0.5 5.6 (3.9, 22) 0.1
No 50.8 (23.9, 137) 12.4 (8.5, 185) 25.0 (19.1, 69) 4.1 (2.2, 37)
dTTH and pTTHg Yes 61.5 (17.8, 29) 0.02 20.0 (10.3, 32) < 0.001 29.5 (13.7, 33) 0.2 6.2 (4.1, 18) 0.04
No 50.2 (23.7, 154) 13.1 (8.8, 212) 24.5 (19.4, 77) 3.9 (2.2,41)
Number of conditionsh Only headaches 52.9 (23.0, 173) 0.02 14.3 (9.3, 235) 0.04 26.0 (18.0, 110) 4.6 (3.0, 59)
Including other conditions 35.2 (20.4, 10) 7.8 (5.6, 9)  
Type of screening question Neutral 61.8 (22.0, 58) < 0.0005 17.1 (9.3, 65) 0.006 31.9 (22.5, 42) 0.02 5.0 (2.1, 24) 0.8
Unknown 50.8 (23.7, 71) 12.9 (10.0, 111) 23.0 (14.2, 41) 4.3 (2.4, 16)
Severity qualification 41.8 (19.1, 52) 12.7 (6.6, 66) 20.9 (12.1, 26) 4.4 (4.5, 18)
  1. TTH tension-type headache, H15+ headache on ≥15 days/month, r Pearson’s r, p two-tailed p-value (Pearson’s r, independent-samples Student’s t-test, or one-way ANOVA for screening question), SD standard deviation, N number of studies
  2. aGeneral population, community-based sample or obligatory schools versus selected populations (among workplace employees, college students, health-plan members etc)
  3. bAmong selected populations: medical students, hospital staff or neurologists versus other selected populations 
  4. cRandom sampling versus non-random sampling or failure to obtain random sample
  5. dTelephone or face-to face interview versus self-administered questionnaire or not specified
  6. eEffort at validating versus none or unstipulated
  7. fStudies distinguishing between dMig and pMig and reporting both versus those not
  8. gStudies distinguishing between dTTH and pTTH and reporting both versus those not
  9. hStudies restricted to headache (or migraine, TTH etc) versus studies investigating multiple other disorders (neurological, other pain conditions etc)