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Table 1 Baseline characteristics for each group

From: Clinical symptoms of androgen deficiency in men with migraine or cluster headache: a cross-sectional cohort study

  Migraine Cluster headache Controls
Number of patients, n 534 437 152
Age (years), mean ± SD 52.43 ± 13.47 53.23 ± 12.92 54.16 ± 13.76
BMI (kg/m2), mean ± SD 25.43 ± 3.54 25.43 ± 3.62 25.12 ± 3.12
Smoking, n (%) 29 (5.4) 251 (57.7) 14 (9.2)
Lifetime depression, n (%)
 Yes 196 (36.7) 160 (36.6) 15 (9.9)
 No 274 (51.3) 198 (45.3) 132 (86.8)
 Unknown 64 (12.0) 79 (18.1) 5 (3.3)
Chronic migraine, n (%) 82 (15.4) NA NA
Chronic CH, n (%) NA 99 (22.7) NA
  1. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index, SD standard deviation, CH Cluster headache
  2. Chronic migraine was defined based on the ICHD-3 criteria as ≥15 headache days per month, from which ≥8 migraine days. Chronic cluster headache was defined based on the ICHD-3 criteria as remission periods lasting < 3 months for at least 1 year. Lifetime depression was defined as a HADS-D ≥ 8 or CES-D ≥ 16 or (past) depression diagnosed by a physician or (past) use of antidepressants for depression