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Table 1 Demographic and clinical data for all participants

From: Enhanced functional connectivity between habenula and salience network in medication-overuse headache complicating chronic migraine positions it within the addiction disorders: an ICA-based resting-state fMRI study

Clinical details MOH + CMa patients EMb patients Healthy controls p value
Age, years 46.6 ± 10.3 38.0 ± 14.4 40.8 ± 9.7 0.078
Sex 3Mc, 14Fd 4 M, 14 F 11 M, 19 F 0.298
Headache history, years 22.8 ± 8.9 10.8 ± 6.9  N/Ae < 0.001
Medication-overuse duration, years 7.3 ± 6.4  N/A N/A N/A
Headache location
Right; Left; Bilateral 2 (11.8 %); 2 (11.8 %); 13 (76.5 %) 2 (11.1 %); 7 (38.9 %); 9 (50 %) N/A; N/A; N/A N/A; N/A; N/A
VASf 8.4 ± 1.4 8.0 ± 1.4  N/A 0.465
PHQ9 8.7 ± 6.7 2.4 ± 4.8 2.5 ± 2.2 < 0.05h
GAD-7i 2.9 ± 3.9 1.6 ± 3.6 2.6 ± 2.1 0.729
  1. a MOH + CM, medication-overuse headache + chronic migraine; b EM, episodic migraine; c M, male; d F, female; e NA, not applicable; f VAS, visual analog scale; g PHQ-9, Patient Health Questionnaire 9 Depression Scale; h Post-hoc analysis using LSD resulted significant difference between MOH + CM and EM with p value of 0.018, MOH + CM with HC with p value of 0.002. Meanwhile there was no significant difference between EM and HC with p value of 0.978; i GAD-7, Generalized Anxiety Disorder Assessment 7-item Scale. Data are mean ± standard deviation