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Table 2 Headache characteristics and potential trigger factors before lockdown begin and in the first 3 months of lockdown in Germany

From: Primary headaches during the COVID-19 lockdown in Germany: analysis of data from 2325 patients using an electronic headache diary

  Before lockdown First lockdown month Second lockdown month Third lockdown month p valuea
Monthly headache days (MHD) 6.11 ± 5.10 5.93 ± 4.93 5.98 ± 4.83 6.07 ± 5.17 0.688
Monthly migraine days (MMD) 4.02 ± 4.44 4.07 ± 4.24 4.11 ± 4.21 4.23 ± 4.44 0.326
Monthly days with acute medication use (AMD) 4.14 ± 3.95 3.95 ± 3.88 4.17 ± 3.82 4.34 ± 4.06 0.786
Migraine pain intensity (NRS 0–10) 5.43 ± 1.95 5.36 ± 1.81 5.30 ± 1.91 5.29 ± 1.93 0.923
Headache intensity (NRS 0–10) 4.84 ± 1.86 4.86 ± 1.81 4.83 ± 1.77 4.88 ± 1.84 0.328
Activity Level (NRS 0–10) 4.88 ± 1.67 4.84 ± 1.70 4.90 ± 1.71 4.98 ± 1.70 0.187
Energy Level (NRS 0–10) 5.27 ± 1.54 5.35 ± 1.55 5.33 ± 1.57 5.33 ± 1.58 0.586
Mood (NRS 0–4) 2.42 ± 0.58 2.44 ± 0.58 2.46 ± 0.59 2.49 ± 0.58 0.612
Stress level (NRS 0–10) 3.79 ± 1.91 3.39 ± 1.95 3.59 ± 1.95 3.56 ± 1.97 0.069
Sleep duration (h) 7.66 ± 0.85 7,87 ± 0.89 7.73 ± 0.87 7.70 ± 0.84 0.826
Sleep quality (NRS 0–10) 5.97 ± 1.68 6.00 ± 1.95 6.01 ± 1.70 6.01 ± 1.68 0.159
  1. Values are mean ± standard deviation. NRS = numeric rating scale. a p values of the repeated measures ANOVA between all time points.