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Table 1 Headache characteristics and potential trigger factors during the 28-day period before and the first 28 days of the lockdown period in Germany

From: Primary headaches during the COVID-19 lockdown in Germany: analysis of data from 2325 patients using an electronic headache diary

  Before lockdown First lockdown month p value 95%-CI d
Monthly headache days (MHD) 7.01 ± 5.64 6.89 ± 5.47 > 0.999 −0.03 – 0.27 0.022
Monthly migraine days (MMD) 4.98 ± 4.97 4.95 ± 4.83 > 0.999 −0.11 – 0.16 0.006
Monthly days with acute medication use (AMD) 4.50 ± 3.88 4.27 ± 3.81 < 0.001* 0.19–0.35 0.060
Migraine pain intensity (NRS 0–10) 5.30 ± 1.77 5.35 ± 1.75 > 0.999 −0.10 – 0.01 0.028
Headache intensity (NRS 0–10) 4.90 ± 1.71 4.92 ± 1.72 > 0.999 −0.09 – 0.01 0.011
Activity Level (NRS 0–10) 4.82 ± 1.56 4.76 ± 1.62 0.001* 0.03–0.09 0.038
Energy Level (NRS 0–10) 5.28 ± 1.42 5.34 ± 1.47 < 0.001* −0.08 – − 0.04 0.041
Mood (NRS 0–4) 2.42 ± 0.53 2.45 ± 0.56 < 0.001* −0.04 – − 0.02 0.055
Stress level (NRS 0–10) 3.81 ± 1.83 3.38 ± 1.86 < 0.001* 0.40–0.46 0.233
Sleep duration (h) 7.68 ± 0.79 7.87 ± 0.82 < 0.001* −0.20 – − 0.17 0.236
Sleep quality (NRS 0–10) 5.96 ± 1.57 5.97 ± 1.61 > 0.999 −0.03 – 0.01 0.006
  1. Values are mean ± standard deviation. NRS numeric rating scale, CI confidence interval. * = statistically significant. d = effect size, expressed as Cohen’s d.