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Table 4 Univariate and multivariate logistic analysis to identify independent variables decreasing headache intensity per month

From: The impact of COVID-19 pandemic on headache symptoms and drug withdrawal among patients with medication overuse headache: a cross-sectional study

Variables Univariate   Multivariate  
  OR(95%CI) P OR(95%CI) P
Sex, male 1.08 (0.41–2.84) 0.879
Age, year 1.00 (0.96–1.05) 0.965
Marital status, married 0.33 (0.05–2.09) 0.237
Education level (>  12 years) 3.16 (0.96–10.34) 0.058 5.98 (1.19–30.06) 0.030*
Preexisting headache diagnoses (CTTH vs. others) 1.06 (0.41–2.70) 0.912 2.05 (0.49–8.50) 0.323
Duration of medication overuse 0.87 (0.75–1.00) 0.051 0.90 (0.76–1.06) 0.192
Available access to regular prophylactic medication 5.29 (1.93–14.50) 0.001* 10.13 (2.33–44.12) 0.002*
Following abrupt withdrawal 4.38 (1.62–11.83) 0.004* 5.12 (1.27–20.54) 0.021*
Headache intensity per month in the pre-pandemic 3 months period 1.11 (0.90–1.37) 0.314 1.12 (0.84–1.50) 0.449
History of epidemiological area exposure 0.999
Suspected COVID-19 cases themselves or in their relatives 1.000
COVID-19 cases in respondent’s residential community 0.52 (0.03–8.66) 0.649
Level of concern about COVID-19 pandemic 2.08 (0.81–5.37) 0.131
Duration spent on following news of pandemic, hours per day 1.50 (0.86–2.63) 0.154
Feel of difficulty in controlling emotion during the COVID-19 pandemic 0.94 (0.16–5.49) 0.945
Stressors total score during the COVID-19 pandemic 1.02 (0.97–1.07) 0.393
Fear for getting COVID-19 1.01 (0.87–1.17) 0.913
Physical and psychological distress caused by isolation 0.99 (0.77–1.28) 0.965 0.78 (0.54–1.12) 0.175
Inconvenience caused by work and life changes 1.12 (0.94–1.33) 0.198 1.32 (1.00–1.73) 0.051
Social discrimination 1.14 (0.54–2.41) 0.727
Limited social function 1.03 (0.92–1.15) 0.584
Economic losses 1.10 (0.91–1.32) 0.332
Coronavirus death of family members or friends 1.000
Kessler 6-item psychological distress scale during the COVID-19 pandemic 0.96 (0.80–1.16) 0.672
  1. CI Confidence interval; *: Statistically significant at P < 0.05