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Table 3 Univariate and multivariate logistic analysis to identify independent variables reducing headache days (≥ 50%)

From: The impact of COVID-19 pandemic on headache symptoms and drug withdrawal among patients with medication overuse headache: a cross-sectional study

Variables Univariate   Multivariate  
  OR(95%CI) P OR(95%CI) P
Sex, male 2.1 (0.69–6.41) 0.192
Age, year 1.03 (0.97–1.09) 0.329
Marital status, married 1.03 (0.11–9.95) 0.997
Education level (>  12 years) 1.07 (0.26–4.40) 0.925
Household income monthly 1.14 (0.38–3.42) 0.818
Preexisting headache diagnoses (CTTH vs. others) 0.73 (0.24–2.25) 0.582 0.50 (0.09–2.82) 0.434
Duration of medication overuse 0.90 (0.76–1.05) 0.182
Available access to regular prophylactic medication 39.71 (4.86–324.16) 0.001* 39.19 (3.75–409.15) 0.002*
Following abrupt withdrawal 5.46 (1.57–18.95) 0.008* 3.47 (0.65–18.59) 0.147
Headache days per month in the pre-pandemic 3 months period 1.00 (0.95–1.05) 0.953 1.06 (0.91–1.22) 0.469
Days per month with acute medication in the pre-pandemic 3 months period 0.98 (0.93–1.03) 0.448 0.96 (0.84–1.10) 0.532
History of epidemiological area exposure 0.25 (0.02–4.16) 0.331
Suspected COVID-19 cases themselves or in their relatives 1.000
COVID-19 cases in respondent’s residential community 0.25 (0.02–4.16) 0.331
Level of concern about COVID-19 pandemic 1.56 (0.52–4.72) 0.430
Duration spent on following news of pandemic 1.65 (0.91–2.98) 0.099 1.23 (0.65–2.32) 0.527
Feel of difficulty in controlling emotion during the COVID-19 pandemic 2.07 (0.34–12.49) 0.426
Stressors total score during the COVID-19 pandemic 1.02 (0.97–1.08) 0.409
Fear for getting COVID-19 0.96 (0.80–1.16) 0.680
Physical and psychological distress caused by isolation 1.13 (0.86–1.47) 0.390 1.08 (0.69–1.70) 0.731
Inconvenience caused by work and life changes 1.02 (0.83–1.25) 0.870 1.18 (0.83–1.68) 0.355
Social discrimination 0.999
Limited social function 1.07 (0.94–1.21) 0.305
Economic losses 1.17 (0.95–1.45) 0.144
Coronavirus death of family members or friends 1.000
Kessler 6-item psychological distress scale during the COVID-19 pandemic 0.89 (0.69–1.15) 0.356
  1. CI Confidence interval; *: Statistically significant at P < 0.05