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Table 1 Distribution of different variables in MOH patients

From: The impact of COVID-19 pandemic on headache symptoms and drug withdrawal among patients with medication overuse headache: a cross-sectional study

Characteristic MOH patients (n = 78) *
Sex, male 28 (35.9%)
Age, year 51.6 ± 10.5
Marital status, married 73 (93.6%)
Living with others 66 (84.6%)
Education level, year
  ≤ 12 64 (82.1%)
  >  12 14 (17.9%)
Household income monthly a, RMB
 0–4999 41 (52.5%)
 5000–9999 22 (28.2%)
 10,000–14,999 8 (10.3%)
 15,000–19,999 3 (3.9%)
  > 20,000 4 (5.1%)
Preexisting headache diagnoses
 Chronic migraine 5 (6.4%)
 Episodic migraine and TTH 39 (50.0%)
 Chronic TTH 34 (43.6%)
Duration of medication overuse, year 3.0 (2.0–7.3)
Available access to regular prophylactic medications 32 (41.0%)
Following abrupt withdrawal 34 (43.6%)
Headache days per month in the pre-pandemic 3 months period 10.0 (3.0–18.5)
Headache intensity per month in the pre-pandemic 3 months period 5.0 ± 2.3
Days per month with acute medication in the pre-pandemic 3 months period 10.0 (1.0–15.0)
MIDAS score during the COVID-19 pandemic 0.0 (0.0–7.0)
History of epidemiological area exposure 2 (2.6%)
Suspected COVID-19 cases themselves or in their relatives 1 (1.3%)
COVID-19 cases in respondent’s residential community 2 (2.6%)
Level of concern about COVID-19 pandemic
 Very concerned 4 (5.1%)
 Concerned 22 (28.2%)
 Average 11 (14.1%)
 Relatively unconcerned or very unconcerned 41 (52.6%)
Duration spent on following news of pandemic, hours per day 0.6 ± 1.1
Feel of difficulty in controlling emotion during the COVID-19 pandemic 6 (7.7%)
Frequency of COVID-19 related dreams
 Most of time or sometimes 0
 None 78 (100.0%)
Stressors total score during the COVID-19 pandemic 30.8 ± 10.0
 Fear for getting COVID-19 (4 items) 6.9 ± 3.1
 Physical and psychological distress caused by isolation (2 items) 3.0 ± 1.9
 Inconvenience caused by work and life changes (2 items) 3.7 ± 2.6
 Social discrimination (2 items) 2.1 ± 0.6
 Limited social function (4 items) 8.9 ± 4.3
 Economic losses (2 items) 4.2 ± 2.5
Coronavirus death of family members or friends (2 items) 2.0 ± 0.1
Kessler 6-item psychological distress scale during the COVID-19 pandemic 1.0 (0.0–3.0)
 Nervous 0.0 (0.0–1.0)
 Hopeless 0.0 (0.0–0.0)
 Restless or fidgety 0.0 (0.0–1.0)
 So depressed that nothing could cheer you up 0.0 (0.0–1.0)
 Everything is an effort 0.0 (0.0–0.0)
 Worthless 0.0 (0.0–0.0)
 Severe psychological distress 0
  1. *Values are n (%), mean ± SD, or median (quartiles)
  2. a: 1 RMB = 0.141 USD on 30 June 2020