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Table 1 Literatures on effects of probiotic supplementation on migraine headache

From: Gut-brain Axis and migraine headache: a comprehensive review

authors and yearType of articleSample sizeType of probioticsDuration of treatmentResults
De Roos N, Giezenaar C, Rovers J, et al. 2015 [89]Clinical trial29 patients2 g/d of a probiotic food supplement (Ecologic(®)Barrier, 2.5 × 10(9) cfu/g)12 weeks1) number of migraine days/month decreased significantly
2) The MIDAS score improved
3) Headache Disability Inventory (HDI) did not change significantly
de Roos N, van Hemert S, Rovers J, et al. 2017 [130]Randomized control trial63 patients (probiotic (n = 31) placebo group (n = 32))multispecies probiotic (5 × 109 colony-forming units) or placebo daily12 weeksNo significant benefit from a multispecies probiotic compared to a placebo on the outcome parameters of migraine and intestinal integrity
James Sensenig N, Jeffrey Marrongelle D and CCN MJ S. T. 2001 [126]Clinical trial40 patientsTwo nutritional formulations contained probiotics + minerals + vitamins + herbs3 months80% of the participants experienced significant improvements in quality of life and pain relief in more than half of the migraineurs
Martami F, Togha M, Seifishahpar M, et al. 2019 [127]randomized double-blind controlled trial40 episodic and 39 chronic migraine patients14-strain probiotic mixture or placebo10 weeksSignificant reduction in migraine attacks, migraine severity, and the number of abortive drugs in the probiotic group compare to the placebo group