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Table 3 Patients’ history and risk factors. (see page 7)

From: Dural arteriovenous fistulas and headache features: an observational study

 All
N (%)
CCFs
N (%)
Other DAVFs
N (%)
p value
N4014 (35.0)26 (65.0) 
Alcohol usens
No15 (39.5)5 (35.7)10 (41.7) 
Yes0 (0.0)00 
Sporadic23 (60.5)9 (64.3)14 (58.3) 
Missing202 
Smoking
No26 (68.4)13 (92.9)13 (54.2)0.014
Previous use9 (23.7)09 (37.5)ns
Yes3 (7.9)1 (7.1)2 (8.3)ns
Missing202 
Epilepsyns
Yes3 (8.1)2 (15.4)1 (4.2) 
No34 (91.9)11 (84.6)23 (95.8) 
Missing312 
Headachens
Yes12 (23.1)3 (23.1)9 (36.0) 
No26 (76.9)10 (76.9)16 (64.0) 
Missing211 
Head traumans
Yes4 (10.0)1 (7.1)3 (11.5) 
No36 (90.0)13 (92.9)23 (88.5) 
Missing000 
Stroke/TIAns
Yes3 (7.5)2 (14.3)1 (3.8) 
No37 (92.5)12 (85.7)25 (96.2) 
Missing000 
Cerebral hemorrhagens
Yes1 (2.5)0 (0.0)1 (3.8) 
No39 (97.5)14 (100.0)25 (96.2) 
Missing000 
Thrombosisns
Yes5 (11.9)2 (14.3)3 (11.5) 
No35 (88.1)12 (85.7)23 (88.5) 
Missing000 
Vascular risk factors
Antiphospholipid syndromens
  Yes1 (4.2)0 (0.0)1 (6.7) 
  No23 (95.8)9 (100.0)14 (93.3) 
  Missing16511 
Trombophilians
  Yes1 (4.3)0 (0.0)1 (7.1) 
  No22 (95.7)9 (100.0)13 (92.9) 
  Missing17512 
  1. Abbreviations: CCFs carotid-cavernous fistulas; DAVFs dural arteriovenous fistulas; TIA transient ischemic attack; ns not significant
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