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Table 2 Symptoms in relation to the type of DAVFs

From: Dural arteriovenous fistulas and headache features: an observational study

Clinical presentationAll
N (%)
CCFs
N (%)
Other DAVFs
N (%)
p value
N4014 (35.0)26 (65.0) 
Ocular complaints15 (37.5)13 (92.9)2 (7.7)< 0.001
 Diplopia11 (27.5)11 (78.6)0< 0.001
 Ptosis2 (5.0)2 (14.3)0ns
 Exophtalmos5 (12.5)5 (35.7)00.003
 Hyperemia / conjunctival chemosis9 (22.5)9 (64.3)0< 0.001
 Campimetric deficit3 (7.5)1 (7.1)2 (7.1)ns
Half-face hypoesthesia1 (2.5)1 (7.1)0ns
Headache18 (45.0)7 (50.0)11 (42.3)ns
 Non-Migraine-like headache6 (15.0)6 (42.9)0< 0.001
 Migraine-like headache12 (30.0)1 (7.1)11 (42.3)0.03
Cerebellar/hearing/vestibular dysfunction12 (30.0)1 (7.1)9 (34.6)ns
 Nausea / vomiting1 (2.5)01 (3.8)ns
 Postural instability2 (5.0)02 (7.7)ns
 Tinnitus / hearing loss7 (17.5)1 (7.1)6 (23.1)ns
Other cranial nerves complaints2 (5.0)2 (14.3)0ns
Laterocervical / retroauricolar pain3 (7.5)1 (7.1)2 (7.7)ns
Seizures2 (5.0)1 (7.1)1 (3.8)ns
Aphasia1 (2.5)01 (3.8)ns
Limbs weakness1 (2.5)01 (3.8)ns
Hemisoma/limbs paresthesia/hypoesthesia3 (7.5)1 (7.1)1 (3.8)ns
Sphincter disorders1 (2.5)01 (3.8)ns
Confusional state2 (5.0)02 (7.7)ns
Syncope1 (2.5)01 (3.8)ns
Asymptomatic5 (12.5)04 (15.4)ns
  1. Abbreviations: CCFs carotid-cavernous fistulas, DAVFs dural arteriovenous fistulas, ns not significant
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