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Table 1 Barrow’s and Cognard’s classifications of DAVFs

From: Dural arteriovenous fistulas and headache features: an observational study

Barrow (for CCFs)Cognard (for other DAVFs than CCFs)
ADirect shunting of blood flow from the ICA into the
cavernous sinus.
INormal anterograde flow into dural sinus
IIaRetrograde flow into dural venous sinus(es)
BShunts to the cavernous sinus from branches of the ICAIIbAnterograde flow into dural venous sinus and retrograde filling of cortical vein(s)
IIa + bRetrograde drainage into sinus(es) and cortical vein(s)
CShunts to the cavernous sinus from branches of the ECAIIIDirect drainage into cortical veins without venous ectasia
IVDirect drainage into cortical veins with venous ectasia (> 5 mm and 3 times larger than diameter of draining vein)
DShunts from both the ICA and ECA simultaneouslyVDrainage to spinal perimedullary veins
  1. Abbreviations: ICA Internal Carotid Artery, ECA External Carotid Artery. Adapted from References 7 and 9
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