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Table 2 Associations of health care utilization and workplace productivity losses with migraine disability (high or MIDAS III/IV vs low or MIDAS I/II)

From: A cross-sectional study on the burden and impact of migraine on work productivity and quality of life in selected workplaces in the Philippines

  Odds ratio Standard error p-value 95% confidence interval
Health care utilization
 Consulted a doctor in the past 3 months 3.11 0.88 < 0.0001 1.78–5.43
 Took medication in the past 3 months 1.67 0.58 0.137 0.85–3.30
 Undergone lab tests in the past 3 months 1.84 0.54 0.038 1.03–3.27
 Visited emergency department during the past 12 months 2.09 0.54 0.005 1.25–3.48
 Hospitalized during the past 12 months 1.85 0.60 0.058 0.98–3.47
Workplace productivity losses
Logistic regression (part 1) of two-part model
  Reported at least 1 day of absenteeism in the past 3 months 6.63 1.65 < 0.0001 4.07–10.81
  Reported at least 1 day of presenteeism in the past three months 2.49 0.34 < 0.0001 1.83–3.15
  Reported at least 1 day of absenteeism or presenteeism in the past 3 months 2.73 0.41 < 0.0001 1.93–3.54
Generalized linear model with log link family and gamma distribution for absenteeism and Poisson distribution for presenteeism and total workdays lost to migraine (part 2) of two-part model
  Marginal effect Standard error p-value 95% confidence interval
Number of days of absenteeism in the past 3 months 2.67 0.33 < 0.0001 2.04–3.31
Number of days of presenteeism in the past 3 months 5.08 0.31 < 0.0001 4.48–5.69
Total number of days lost due to migraine in the past 3 months 8.08 0.39 < 0.0001 7.31–8.86
Monthly costs due to absenteeism (PHP) 974.3 118.3 < 0.0001 742.5–1206.1
Monthly costs due to presenteeism (PHP) 1889.4 39.0 < 0.0001 1813.0–1965.8
Total monthly costs due to migraine (PHP) 2982.2 52.3 < 0.0001 2879.7–3084.6
  1. Notes: 1. Models were adjusted for gender, age, educational attainment, and employee rank; 2. Workplace productivity losses were assessed using a two-part model, where the first part measured the likelihood of reporting at least a day lost to migraine, and the second part measuring the number of days and associated costs lost due to migraine for those reporting at least a day lost to migraine; 3. PHP: Philippine Pesos, Conversion rate approximately PHP50 = USD1