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Table 1 Demographic features of participants and characteristics of headache experienced during the pandemic period

From: Headache characteristics in COVID-19 pandemic-a survey study

(n = 1968) COVID-19 positivea No COVID-19b   
Prior headache (n = 116) No prior headache (n = 87) p Prior headache (n = 138) No prior headache (n = 383)   p (1–3)† p (2–4)‡
Age year,mean (SD) 39.7 (11) 38.2 (11) .370 41.0 (10) 42.2 (11) .061 .175 .004
Sex (male %) 36.2 46.0 .104 22.9 31.6 .000 .001 .008
Healthcare worker (%) 44.0 43.7 .541 46.1 48.3 .239 .366 .255
Headache duration hours mean (SD) 52.1 (57) 45.3 (53) .430 38.4 (53) 45.9 (63) .039 .014 .949
Headache characteristics
 Pulsating % 50.9 32.5 .008 55.5 42.5 .000 .202 .064
 Pressing % 31.9 43.7 .058 29.0 38.6 .000 .289 .227
 Fiery % 2.6 2.3 .633 2.7 5.0 .022 .625 .219
 Stabbing % 12.9 16.1 .330 11.1 11.2 .497 .315 .142
Accompanying symptoms
 Nausea % 70.8 71.3 .538 53.5 52.9 .450 .000 .002
 Phonophobia % 67.0 67.9 .509 71.2 66.6 .056 .198 .465
 Photophobia % 63.9 63.0 .508 60.5 51.2 .002 .276 .038
 Osmophobia % 39.0 50.0 .090 30.4 28.5 .292 .044 .000
 Allodynia % 31.9 41.8 .024
 Anosmia/ageusia % 74.5 73.2 .479 19.1 23.1 .073 .000 .000
 Sore throat, rhinorrhea % 62.2 70.4 .152 41.8 54.4 .000 .000 .006
 Stinging, burning, tearing in the eyes 63.2 64.6 .481 44.8 49.8 .063 .000 .011
 Use of analgesics % 84.3 79.8 .257 82.8 69.8 .000 .389 .042
 No response to analgesics % 16.5 22.4 .227 7.1 8.0 .353 .002 .002
 Partial response to analgesics < 50%) % 38.1 38.8 .530 25.5 37.6 .000 .006 .484
 Improved with analgesics > 50% 32.0 25.4 .231 26.1 27.4 .362 .129 .436
 Completely recovered with analgesics % 12.4 11.9 .568 39.2 26.2 .000 .000 .008
  1. a Diagnosed by positive PCR test; b No COVID-19 symptoms or diagnosis; †p (1–3) p value between the patients with prior headache with or without positive COVID-19 test; ‡p (2–4) p value between the patients with no prior headache with or without positive COVID-19 test (significant test values are marked as bold)