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Table 3 Multivariate logistic analysis to identify independent variables affecting increase in migraine frequency and severity (n = 1018)

From: Impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on patients with migraine: a web-based survey study

Variables Increase in migraine frequency Increase in migraine severity
AOR (95%CI) p-value AOR (95%CI) p-value
Gender (female) 0.769 (0.491–1.203) 0.250 0.643 (0.419–0.986) 0.043*
Disease onset 0.984 (0.965–1.003) 0.089 0.978 (0.960–0.996) 0.018*
Difficulty in getting medications 1.012 (0.715–1.810) 0.040* 1.271 (0.872–1.853) 0.002*
Non-compliance to treatment 0.579 (0.418–0.804) 0.001* 1.655 (1.204–2.274) 0.002*
Medication overuse 11.603 (8.403–16.023) < 0.001* 8.179 (5.963–11.218) < 0.001*
Sleep disturbance 2.113 (1.375–3.248) 0.001* 1.562 (1.041–2.344) 0.031*
Eating habits disturbance 1.702 (1.178–2.459) 0.005* 1.778 (1.247–2.536) 0.001*
Symptoms of anxiety and/or depression 1.257 (0.823–1.918) 0.290 1.558 (1.043–2.329) 0.030*
Use of traditional medicine 1.465 (1.049–2.045) 0.071 1.361 (0.984–1.882) 0.063
Working during pandemic 1.356 (1.169–2.368) 0.005* 1.241 (0.906–1.699) 0.001*
Lack of communication with treating physician 1.983 (0.898–2.730) 0.001* 1.776 (0.898–2.938) 0.001*
Lack of regular exercise 1.257 (0.898–1.761) 0.183 1.223 (0.898–1.412) 0.234
  1. AOR: Adjusted odds ratio
  2. CI: Confidence interval
  3. *: Statistically significant at p ≤ 0.05