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Table 2 Multivariate analyses of factors associated with humanistic and economic burden among Japanese migraine patients

From: Burden of migraine among Japanese patients: a cross-sectional National Health and Wellness Survey

HRQoL Outcome Variable Associated Variable Coefficient [95% CI] p
PCS
(N = 378)
CCI (per unit) −2.83 [− 4.39, − 1.28] < 0.001
Aura Yes −3.97 [− 7.23, − 0.71] 0.017
No Reference  
Monthly headache days ≥15 days −6.99 [− 10.17, −3.80] < 0.001
8–14 days −1.60 [− 4.97, 1.77]  
4–7 days Reference  
MCS
(N = 378)
Marital status Married or living with partner Reference 0.020
Not Married / Decline to answer −2.33 [−4.30, −0.36]  
Monthly headache days ≥15 days −3.14 [−5.31, − 0.97] 0.004
8–14 days −3.08 [− 5.39, − 0.78]  
4–7 days Reference  
RCS
(N = 378)
Age (per year) 0.22 [0.09, 0.34] 0.001
Marital status Married or living with partner Reference 0.007
Not Married / Decline to answer −4.66 [−8.07, −1.25]  
Currently employed Yes 5.18 [2.02, 8.34] 0.001
No Reference  
Monthly headache days ≥15 days −3.85 [−7.42, −0.27] 0.048
8–14 days − 0.86 [−2.93, 4.65]  
4–7 days Reference  
SF-6D
(N = 378)
Age (per year) 0.001 [0.001, 0.002] 0.007
CCI (per unit) −0.024 [−0.038, − 0.010] 0.001
Marital status Married or living with partner Reference 0.007
Not Married / Decline to answer −0.037 [−0.064, − 0.010]  
Currently employed Yes 0.046 [0.021, 0.071] < 0.001
No Reference  
Monthly headache days ≥15 days −0.064 [−0.092, − 0.036] < 0.001
8–14 days −0.021 [− 0.051, 0.009]  
4–7 days Reference  
WPAI Outcome Variable Associated Variable OR [95% CI] p-value
Absenteeism
(N = 208)
Pain is worse on one side of your head or occurs on one side of your head only Yes 2.15 [1.17, 3.94] 0.014
No Reference  
Total activity impairment
(N = 207)
CCI (per unit) 1.13 [1.03, 1.25] 0.013
Marital status Married or living with partner Reference 0.023
Not Married / Decline to answer 1.20 [1.03, 1.41]  
Level of education Completed university education Reference 0.002
No university education 0.82 [0.69, 0.96]  
Decline to answer 0.67 [0.53, 0.86]  
Region Hokkaido Reference 0.032
Tohoku 0.63 [0.39, 1.03]  
Kanto 0.84 [0.55, 1.28]  
Chubu 0.75 [0.48, 1.17]  
Kinki 0.84 [0.54, 1.32]  
Chugoku 0.66 [0.38, 1.14]  
Shikoku 0.46 [0.26, 0.82]  
Kyushu/Okinawa 0.66 [0.41, 1.05]  
Currently employed Yes 0.76 [0.65, 0.88] < 0.001
No Reference  
Monthly headache days ≥15 days 1.45 [1.22, 1.73] < 0.001
8–14 days 1.11 [0.92, 1.35]  
4–7 days Reference  
HRU Outcome Variable Associated Variable OR [95% CI] p-value
No. of HCP visits in the past 6 months
(N = 378)
Age (per year) 1.02 [1.01, 1.03] 0.002
CCI (per unit) 1.45 [1.19, 1.76] < 0.001
Monthly headache days ≥15 days 2.10 [1.58, 2.79] < 0.001
8–14 days 1.42 [1.05, 1.92]  
4–7 days Reference  
No. of hospitalizations in the past 6 months
(N = 378)
CCI (per unit) 4.29 [1.61, 11.48] 0.004
Level of education Completed university education Reference 0.006
Not 0.12 [0.03, 0.45]  
Decline to answer 0.44 [0.06, 3.20]  
See spots, flashing lights, or “heat waves” before or during the migraine Yes 4.59 [1.08, 19.54] 0.039
No Reference  
Monthly headache days ≥15 days 7.88 [1.90, 32.76] 0.001
8–14 days 12.03 [3.02, 47.89]  
4–7 days Reference  
Cost Outcome Variable Associated Variable OR [95% CI] p
Absenteeism Cost
(N = 208)
Gender Male Reference 0.022
Female 0.47 [0.25, 0.90]  
Pain is worse on one side of your head or occurs on one side of your head only Yes 2.19 [1.17, 4.11] 0.014
No Reference  
Presenteeism Cost
(N = 219)
Gender Male Reference < 0.001
Female 0.56 [0.43, 0.74]  
Indirect Cost
(N = 207)
Gender Male Reference < 0.001
Female 0.56 [0.43, 0.72]  
  1. Abbreviations: HRQoL Health-related quality of life, WPAI Work productivity and activity impairment, HRU Healthcare resource utilization, PCS Physical component summary, MCS Mental component summary, RCS Role/social component summary, HCP Healthcare providers, ER Emergency room, CCI Charlson comorbidity index, RR Relative risk, OR Odds ratio, CI Confidence interval