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Table 2 Crude (observed) 1-year prevalences (% [95% CIs]) of all headache and each headache type, overall and according to demographic variables, and gender- and age-adjusted prevalences

From: The prevalence of headache disorders in children and adolescents in Ethiopia: a schools-based study

  All headache (n = 1726) Migraine (n = 900) TTH (n = 477) pMOH (n = 4) Other headache on ≥ 15 d/m (n = 25) UdH (n = 298)
Observed prevalences (% [95% CI])
 Overall (N = 2344) 73.7 [71.9–75.5] 38.4 [36.4–40.4] 20.3 [18.7–21.9] 0.2 [< 0.1–0.4] 1.1 [0.7–1.5] 12.7 [11.4–14.0]
Gender
 male (n = 1157) 71.0 [68.4–73.6] 36.2 [33.4–39.0] 20.0 [17.7–22.3] 0.2 [0.0–0.5] 1.0 [0.4–1.6] 12.6 [10.7–14.5]
 female (n = 1187) 76.2 [73.8–78.6] 40.5 [37.7–43.3] 20.7 [18.4–23.0] 0.2 [0.0–0.5] 1.1 [0.5–1.7] 12.8 [10.9–14.7]
Age group (years)
 6–11 (n = 1011) 68.4 [65.5–71.3] 40.0 [37.0–43.0] 17.1 [14.9–19.4] 0.1 [0.0–0.3] 0.8 [0.3–1.4] 10.1 [8.2–12.0]
 12–17 (n = 1333) 77.6 [75.4–80.0] 37.2 [34.6–38.0] 22.8 [20.6–25.1] 0.2 [0.0–0.4] 1.3 [0.7–1.9] 14.7 [12.8–16.6]
Pupils’ home-incomea
 higher-middle (n = 359) 86.1 [82.5–90.0] 46.8 [41.6–52.0] 21.2 [17.0–25.4] 0.3 [0.0–0.9] 1.1 [0.0–2.2] 14.8 [11.1–18.5]
 middle (n = 604) 73.3 [69.8–76.8] 31.6 [27.9–35.3] 23.8 [20.4–27.2] 0.5 [0.0–1.1] 1.3 [0.4–2.2] 15.2 [12.3–18.1]
 lower-middle (n = 573) 75.7 [72.2–79.2] 40.8 [36.8–44.8] 21.1 [17.8–24.4] 0.0 [0.0–0.0] 1.2 [0.3–2.1] 11.3 [8.7–13.9]
 low (n = 808) 66.8 [63.6–70.1] 38.0 [34.7–41.4] 16.8 [14.2–19.4] 0.0 [0.0–0.0] 0.7 [0.1–1.3] 10.9 [8.8–13.0]
School locality
 urban (n = 849) 79.6 [76.9–82.3] 43.3 [40.0–46.6] 21.2 [18.5–24.0] 0.1 [0.0–0.3] 1.2 [0.5–1.9] 12.7 [10.5–14.9]
 semi-rural (n = 1173) 71.1 [68.5–73.7] 35.3 [32.6–38.0] 20.4 [18.1–22.7] 0.3 [0.0–0.6] 1.2 [0.6–1.8] 13.4 [11.5–15.3]
 rural (n = 322) 67.1 [62.0–72.2] 36.6 [31.3–41.9] 18.0 [13.8–22.2] 0.0 [0.0–0.0] 0.3 [0.0–0.9] 10.2 [6.9–13.5]
Gender- and age-adjusted prevalences (% [95% CI])
 Overall (N = 2344) 72.8 [71.0–74.6] 38.6 [36.6–40.6] 19.9 [18.3–21.5] 0.2 [< 0.1–0.4] 1.0 [0.6–1.4] 12.3 [11.0–13.6]
  1. CI confidence interval, TTH tension-type headache, pMOH probable medication-overuse headache, d/m days/month, UdH undifferentiated headache; a see text or Table 1 for explanation. Odds ratios for associations with demographic variables are in Table 4, and adjusted odds ratios in Table 5