Skip to main content

Table 2 Environmental factors and stimuli modifying placebo/nocebo effects

From: European Headache Federation recommendations for placebo and nocebo terminology

Modifiable Non-modifiable
Patient’s expectations [13] Previous experiences [14]
Pre-treatment verbal and non-verbal suggestions [15, 16] Patient’s personality [17]
Speed of treatment titration [18] Cultural factors [19, 20]
Safety profile of treatment [21] Age [22]
Patient-doctor relation/communication [23] Social Media and Internet information [24]
Investigator/physician status [15] Gender [25]
Affective and cognitive traits [26] Level of patients’ education [22]
Generic formulations [27, 28] Genetics [29]
The appearance of drugs or medical devices, e.g. packaging, color, price, drug taste, etc. [30, 31]  
Invasive, non-invasive treatments [32]