Skip to main content

Table 1 The 12 initial topics for discussion with the relevant decisions and proportion of agreement

From: European Headache Federation recommendations for placebo and nocebo terminology

1. Definition of placebo (placebos, plural). All panelists agreed to include this topic, and all agreed to the recommended definition.
2. Definition of placebo phenomenon. 15 out of 17 panelists agreed to withdraw this term in order to avoid further confusion.
3. Definition of nocebo (nocebos, plural). All panelists agreed to include this topic, and all agreed to the recommended definition.
4. Definition of nocebo phenomenon. 15 out of 17 panelists agreed to withdraw this term in order to avoid further confusion.
5. Should we distinguish the placebo or nocebo response from the placebo or nocebo effect and why? All panelists agreed to include this topic; 12 out of 17 panelists agreed to distinguishing the two terms.
6. Placebo response definition. All panelists agreed to include this topic, and all agreed to the recommended definition.
7. Placebo effect definition. All panelists agreed to include this topic, and all agreed to the recommended definition.
8. Nocebo response definition. All panelists agreed to include this topic, and all agreed to the recommended definition.
9. Nocebo effect definition. All panelists agreed to include this topic, and all agreed to the recommended definition.
10. Should we use the term placebos or nocebos to include both placebo/nocebo responses and effects? All panelists agreed to include this topic, and all agreed to distinguishing the two terms.
11. Are placebo and nocebo phenomena cognitive-like functions? 15 out of 17 panelists agreed to withdraw this topic because it was not fitted to the aim of the working group.
12. Are there animal and human models for placebo and nocebo? 15 out of 17 panelists agreed to withdraw this topic because it was not fitted to the aim of the working group.