Skip to main content

Table 1 Frequency of baseline variables the entire sample and comparison between patients with and without headache

From: Factors associated with the presence of headache in hospitalized COVID-19 patients and impact on prognosis: a retrospective cohort study

Variable All patients
(n = 576)
Headache
(n = 137)
No headache
(n = 439)
Adjusted p-value
Female sex 250 (43.3%) 80 (58.4%) 170 (38.7%) < 0.001
Age (years) 67.2 (SD: 14.7) 59.25 (SD: 12.4) 69.6 (SD: 14.5) < 0.001
Modified Rankin scale (mean) 0.61 (SD: 1.12) 0.15 (SD: 0.5) 0.75 (SD: 1.2) < 0.001
Hypertension 300 (52.1%) 52 (38%) 248 (56.5%) < 0.001
Diabetes 113 (19.6%) 20 (14.6%) 93 (21.2%) 0.090
Smoking 118 (20.5%) 20 (14.6%) 98 (22.3%) 0.050
Cardiological disorders 154 (26.7%) 19 (13.9%) 135 (30.8%) < 0.001
Pulmonary disorders 145 (25.2%) 33 (24.1%) 112 (25.5%) 0.737
Cancer 94 (16.3%) 18 (13.1%) 76 (17.3%) 0.249
Immuno-suppression 24 (4.2%) 4 (2.9%) 20 (4.6%) 0.409
Chronic neurological disorders 105 (18.3%) 13 (9.5%) 92 (2%) 0.002
Prior history of headache 32 (5.6%) 15 (10.9%) 17 (3.9%) 0.002
ACEis /ARBs 215 (37.3%) 42 (30.7%) 173 (39.4%) 0.064
NSAIDs 75 (13%) 12 (8.8%) 66 (14.4%) 0.090
Corticosteroids 35 (6.1%) 7 (5.1%) 28 (6.4%) 0.587
Neuropharmacological treatment 203 (35.2%) 42 (30.7%) 161 (36.7%) 0.198
Time symptoms-ED (days) 7.34 (SD: 6.16) 8.51 (SD: 5.90) 6.98 (SD: 6.21) 0.011
  1. ACEis angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, ARBs angiotensin II receptor blockers, NSAIDs non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, ED Emergency department. In bold, variables that were statistically significant after adjusting for multiple comparisons (threshold p < 0.0029)
\