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Table 1 Descriptive data. Demographic features of patients with temporomandibular disorders myalgia (TMD) and healthy controls. Questionnaire scores are presented as mean ± standard deviation or as median (interquartile range). Statistical analyses were performed with independent t-test or Mann–Whitney U-test, P < 0.05)

From: Altered levels of salivary and plasma pain related markers in temporomandibular disorders

Variable TMD (n = 39) Controls (n = 39) Statistics
Body Mass Index (kg/m2) 23.7 ± 3.9 22.7 ± 3.3 NS
Age (Years) 28.8 ± 7.4 28.8 ± 6.9 NS
Sex (n, F/M) 32/7 32/7 NS
Body Mass Index (kg/m2) 23.7 ± 3.9 22.7 ± 3.3 NS
Number of teeth 28 (3) 30 (3) NS
Pain-free opening (mm) 40.6 ± 9.9 56.5 ± 6.2 P < 0.001
Maximum unassisted opening (mm) 52.5 ± 6.4 57.9 ± 6.2 P < 0.001
Salivary Flow (ml/min) 1.6 ± 0.6 2.0 ± 0.9 P = 0.033
Pain duration (years) 6.7 ± 6.3 NA P < 0.001
Current pain intensity (NRS) 4 (2) 0 (0) P < 0.001
CPI 60 (20) 0 (0) P < 0.001
PHQ-9 Score (0–36) 6 (7) 1 (4) P < 0.001
PHQ-15 Score (0–30) 10 (7) 3 (4) P < 0.001
GAD-7 Score (0–28) 4 (5) 1 (3) P < 0.001
PSS-10 Score (0–40) 17 (11) 10 (9) P < 0.001
JFLS Score (0–10) 1.2 (1.8) 0 (0) P < 0.001
PCS Score (0–54) 14 (17) 3 (10) P < 0.001
ISI Score (0–28) 10 (9) 5 (5.5) P < 0.001
PPT reference (kPa) 356 ± 121 439 ± 119 P = 0.004
PPT masseter muscle (kPa) 180 ± 56 268 ± 71 P < 0.001
  1. n number of subjects, NRS Numeric Rating Scale, CPI Characteristic Pain Intensity, PHQ The Patient Health Questionnaire, GAD Generalized Anxiety Disorder, PSS perceived stress scale, JFLS Jaw Functional Limitation Scale, PCS Pain Catastrophizing Scale, ISI Insomnia Severity Index, PPT Pressure Pain Threshold