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Table 1 Model specific pros and cons of experimental models

From: Persistent post-traumatic headache: a migrainous loop or not? The preclinical evidence

Model Pros Cons
Penetrative injuries
Controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury - It affords control all over biomechanical parameters.
- It lacks the risk of rebound or second-hit injury, as can happen with gravity-driven devices.
- The dura mater is not pierced during the procedure
- Allows researchers to quantify the relationship between measurable engineered parameters (e.g., force, velocity, depth of tissue deformation) and the extent of (either functional and/or tissue) impairment.
- Injury can be controlled to produce a range of injury magnitudes, allowing gradable functional impairment, tissue damage, or both.
- It is the best characterized model of PTH in rodents
- The need for a craniotomy contrast with the fact that the majority of PTH cases results from non-penetrative head injuries.
- Craniotomy per se can produce inflammation and sensitization of meningeal afferents, thus proper selection of controls is mandatory.
- Pharmacological intervention is not applicable.
Lateral fluid percussion (LFP) injury - It produces a robust and reproducible behavioral phenotype (cephalic hypersensitivity) that is suited to the study of PTH in rodents.
- It exhibits predictive validity and the reliability of the technique enables the evaluation of various pharmacological and genetic manipulations before or after the induction of injury.
- It does lack translational relevance primarily due the invasive craniotomy required, and subsequent compromise of dural integrity even before the injury is applied.
- Still limited application.
- As only hind paw allodynia was evaluated, it is difficult to determine the relevance to PTH.
Non-penetrative injures
Weight-drop injury - It produces a robust behavioral phenotype, with strong translational relevance making it eminently suitable for the study of PTH.
- The severity of the injury can be modified by adjusting the weight and height from which it is dropped.
- Variations exist as to whether the skull or scalp are kept intact during the procedure
- Increased translational value as the location and magnitude of the head traumas that lead to PTH are highly variable.
- The variability of the procedure itself; may hardly ensure that hits are identical to each other and also to avoid rebound second hits
- Pharmacological intervention is not applicable.
Blast injury - The experimental setup allows for the exposure of animals to a “pure” blast event without reflected shock fronts from the ground or other surfaces. - Issues surrounding standardization and implementation are a concern and hindrance for the widespread uptake of blast injury-related models