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Fig. 1 | The Journal of Headache and Pain

Fig. 1

From: Persistent post-traumatic headache: a migrainous loop or not? The preclinical evidence

Fig. 1

Most common animal models of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Penetrative injuries (a,b). The lateral fluid percussion, LFP injury (a) is generated by a pulse of pressurized fluid to the intact dura mater through a craniotomy. The controlled cortical impact, CCI injury (b) is done by means of a pneumatic impactor that hits the cortex through a craniotomy. In penetrative injuries the dura may be damaged, especially in controlled cortical impact models. Non-penetrative injuries (c,d). In the weight-drop injury model (c) a weight falls from a predetermined height (h), hitting the head. In the blast injury model (d), the animal is exposed to an explosive detonation. Non-penetrative models are the most used to study post-traumatic headache. In TBI models, animals are previously anesthetized

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