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Table 3 Association of cluster headache and coexisting migraine with depression

From: The impact of remission and coexisting migraine on anxiety and depression in cluster headache

 Any depression (PHQ-9 scores ≥5)Moderate-to-severe depression (PHQ-9 scores ≥10)
Crude OR (95% CI)PaOR (95% CI)PCrude OR (95% CI)PaOR (95% CI)P
Presence of CHa
 Controlreference reference reference reference 
 CH2.80 (1.71–4.59)< 0.0012.95 (1.72–5.07)< 0.0013.85 (1.98–7.47)< 0.0014.95 (2.32–10.57)< 0.001
Category of CH and migraineb
 Control without migrainereference reference reference reference 
 Control with migraine3.57 (1.49–8.57)0.0043.24 (1.31–8.05)0.0116.66 (1.67–26.58)0.0076.07 (1.45–25.31)0.013
 CH without migraine4.73 (2.47–9.05)< 0.0014.20 (2.16–8.18)< 0.0019.84 (2.97–32.62)< 0.0018.63 (2.55–29.18)0.001
 CH with migraine4.43 (1.76–11.11)0.0024.07 (1.58–10.52)0.00416.47 (4.23–64.06)< 0.00116.88 (4.16–68.38)< 0.001
  1. aAdjustment for age, female sex, current smoking, alcohol drinking, and coexisting migraine
  2. bAdjustment for age, female sex, current smoking, and alcohol drinking
  3. Abbreviations: aOR Multivariable-adjusted odds ratio; CH Cluster headache; CI Confidence interval; OR Odds ratio; PHQ-9 Patient Health Questionnaire (9-item scale)
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