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Table 1 Baseline characteristics between cluster headache patients and controls

From: The impact of remission and coexisting migraine on anxiety and depression in cluster headache

 ControlCH 
Without migraineWith migraineWithout migraineWith migraine 
Variable(n = 63)(n = 36)(n = 191)(n = 31)P
Age, years37.6 ± 10.234.8 ± 7.438.3 ± 11.137.2 ± 8.10.312
Female sex, n (%)11 (17.5)6 (16.7)26 (13.6)9 (29.0)0.188
Current smoking, n (%)20 (31.7)13 (36.1)89 (46.6)7 (22.6)0.025
Alcohol drinking, n (%)42 (66.7)15 (41.7)98 (51.3)10 (32.3)0.008
GAD-7 score2.7 ± 3.06.2 ± 4.67.7 ± 5.59.7 ± 6.9< 0.001
Anxiety, n (%)    < 0.001
 None/minimal (GAD-7: 0–4)50 (79.4)15 (41.7)63 (33.0)9 (29.0) 
 Mild (GAD-7: 5–9)11 (17.5)13 (36.1)59 (30.9)6 (19.4) 
 Moderate-to-severe (GAD-7 ≥ 10)2 (3.2)8 (22.2)69 (36.1)16 (51.6) 
PHQ-9 score3.1 ± 3.16.6 ± 5.27.4 ± 6.19.4 ± 7.7< 0.001
Depression, n (%)    < 0.001
 None/minimal (PHQ-9: 0–4)48 (76.2)17 (47.2)77 (40.3)13 (41.9) 
 Mild (PHQ-9: 5–9)12 (19.0)10 (27.8)51 (26.7)4 (12.9) 
 Moderate-to-severe (PHQ-9 ≥ 10)3 (4.8)9 (25.0)63 (33.0)14 (45.2) 
  1. The data are shown as the mean ± standard deviation or number (percentage)
  2. Abbreviations: CH Cluster headache; GAD-7 Generalized Anxiety Disorder (7-item scale); PHQ-9 Patient Health Questionnaire (9-item scale)